Effects of Using Artemia urmiana Enriched with N-3 HUFA in First Feeding of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Larvae.


1 Department of Fisheries, Tarbiat Modarres University, Noor, Mazandaran,

2 Department of Fisheries, Khazar University, Mahmood abad , Mazandaran,


Effects of using n-3 HUFA-enriched Artemia and non-enriched Artemia as the starter food for growth and survival of rainbow trout larvae compared to commercial concentrated food were investigated in this study. The larvae with average weight of 92.9 mg were fed for 20 days with four food treatments included of commercial concentrated food, newly hatched Artemia, enriched Artemia, and mixture of enriched Artemia and concentrated food. At the end of experiment, the highest weight gain percentage was 104.4% in those larvae fed with enriched Artemia (p< 0.05). The highest survival rate was 96.5 % observed in larvae fed with mixture of enriched Artemia and commercial concentrated food (P<0.05). Larvae of third treatment that were fed with enriched Artemia with a survival rate of 98.9 %?1.9 under stress condition of low pH and survival rate of 66.5% and 3.7 under stress condition of higher pH in rearing environment, were the most resistant larvae against stress resulting from pH fluctuation (P<0.05). Meanwhile the highest resistance against stress, resulting from temperature changes, was seen in larvae of the third and fourth treatment with survival rate of 77.8 % at 24 C respectively.
Abi-Ayad, A. and Kestemont, P. (1994) Comparison of the nutritional status of goldfish (Carassius auratus) larvae fed with live, mixed or dry diet. Aquaculture, 128, 163- 176.
Ako, H., Tamaru, C.S., Bass, P. and Lee, C.S. (1994) Enhancing the resistance to physical stress in larvae of Mugil cephalus by the feeding of enriched Artemia nauplii. Aquaculture, 122, 81- 90.
AOAC (1990) Official Methods of Analysis AOAC (Association of Official Analitic Chemists), Washington DC, 1963 p.
Dhert, P., Lavens, P., Duray, M. and Sorgeloos, P. (1990) Improved larval survival at metamorphosis of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) using w3- HUFA– enriched live food. Aquaculture, 90, 63- 74.
Gapasin, R. S. J., Bombeo, R., Lavens, P., Sorgeloos, P. and Nelis, H. (1998) Enrichment of live food with essential fatty acids and vitamin C: effect on milk fish (Chanos chanos) larval performance. Aquaculture, 162, 269- 286.
Holm, J.C. and Moller, D. (1984) Growth and prey selection by Atlantic salmon yearling reared on live fresh water zooplankton. Aquaculture, 43, 401- 412.
Kim, J., Massee, K. G. and Hardy, W. H. (1996) Adult Artemia as food for first feeding coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Aquaculture, 144, 217- 226.
Lavens, P. and Sorgeloos, P. (1996) Manual on production and use of live food for aquaculture. FAO, 375p.
Leger, P., Bengston, D. A., Simpson , K. L. and Sorgeloos, P. (1986) The use and nutritional value of Artemia as a food source. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. , 24, 521- 623.
 Leger, P., Bengston, D.A. and Sorgeloos, P. (1987) The nutritional value of Artemia. Artemia research and its application, Vol. Abedian Kenari and Mirzakhani 129 3, Universa press wettern, Belgium, pp: 357-370.
 Lemm, C. A. and Lemarie, D.P. (1991) Surviual and growth of larval sriped bass (Morone saxatilis) fed Artemia enriched with highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Aquaculture, 99, 117-126.
Mouriente, G., Rodriguez, A., Tocher, D. R. and Sorgent, G. R. (1993) Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22: 6 n- 3) on lipid and fatty acid compositions and growth in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) larvae during first feeding . Aquaculture, 112, 79- 98 .
Rimmer, D. M. and Power, G. (1978) Feeding response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) alevins in flowing and still water. J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 35, 329- 332.
Sedwick, S.D., (1990) Trout farming handbook. 5th ed. Fishing News Books. pp: 101- 113.
Tacon, A. G. (1990) Standard methods for the nutrition and feeding of farmed fish and shrimp. Argent laboratories press, Vol 1, The Essential Nutrition, 117 p.
Takeuchi, T. and Watanabe, T. (1982) Effect of various polyunsaturated fatty acids on growth and fatty acid compositions of Rainbow trout, Coho salmon and Chum salmon. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48, 1745- 1752.
Tuncer, H. and Harrell, R. M., (1992) Essential fatty acid nutrition of larval striped bass (Moron saxatilis) and palmetto bass (M. saxatilis x M. chrysops) . Aquaculture, l0l, 105- 121.
 Ware, D. M., (1973) Risk of epibenthis prey to predation by Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 30, 787- 797.