The Development of Botanical Products with Special Reference to Seri-Ecosystem


Central Silk Board, B. T. M. Layout, Madiwala, Bangalore 560 068,


The search for alternative ways of controlling sericultural pests has led to the investigation of plant sources for naturally occurring compounds which may have Insect growth regulatory, feeding deterrency, repellency and confusantcy characteristics. More than 2000 species of the families Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae are known that possess some insecticidal activity. Plants with insecticidal properties found in India are reported. But to use them it is necessary to conduct an analysis of the risks to the environment and to human health. Various parts of rotenone, pyrethrum, sabadilla, ryania and neem are often used to minimize pest population. Recently several other plants viz. Pongamia, Indian privet, Adathoda, Chrysanthemum, Turmeric, Onion, Garlic, Tobacco, Basili, Custard apple, Ginger and some other plants have been screened and their efficacy has been tested. The efficacy of leaf extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), lemon grass (Cymbopogen citratus), and Chenopodium ambroissoides was investigated for its insecticidal and ovicidal activity against coleopteran bruchids. Several citrus limonoids and limonin derivatives have been found to be insect antifeedants. Among all the plant originated insecticides, neem (Azadirachta indica, A. juss) is known to contain diverse array of biologically active principles of which azadirachtin (a tetranortriterpenoid) is the best known derivatives which is used in sericulture to control various pests. Botanical insecticides are prepared in the form of the crude plant material, extracts or resins. This paper includes the plants that have been reported to be insecticidal against the pests, which visit seri-ecosystem and damage the silkworm and its host plants.
Baskaran, V. and Narayanasamy, P. (1995) Traditional Pest Control. Caterpillar Publications, Mariyappa Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.
Carmona, D. M. and. Landis, D. A. (1999) Influence of refuge habitats and cover crops on arsenal activity density of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in field crops. Eviron. and Entomol. 28, 1145 – 1153.
Casida, J. E. (1983) Development of synthetic insecticides from natural products: case history of pyrethroids from pyrethrins. In: Natural Products from innovative pest measurement (Ed. Whitehead, D. L. and W. S Bowers.) PP. 109 – 125. Pergamon Press, New York.
 Douressamy, S., Chandramohan, N., Sivaprakasam, N., Subramanian, A. and Sundra babu, P. C. (1997) Management of spiralling whitefly. Indian Silk, 36, 15 – 16.
Etebari, K., Matindoost, L. and Singh, R. N. (2004) Decision tools for mulberry thrips Pseudodendrothrips mori (Niwa, 1908) management in sericultural regions; An overview. Entomologia Sinica. 11, 243-258.
Isman, M. B. (1997) Leads and prospects for the development of new botanical insecticides. Rev. Pesticide Toxicol. 3, 1 –20.
 Jacobson, M. (1975) Insecticides from plants: A review of the literature, 1954-1971. Botanical Insecticides 8 Agriculture Hand Book 461, U.S.D.A., Washington, D. C. pp. 138.
Jaiswal, K., Upadhyay,S., Dhami, S. S. and Gangwar, S. K. (2004) Application of different neem (Azadirachtin) formulations for the control of insect pest (Ergolis meriona C.) population infesting castor. Proc. National workshop on Potential and Strategies for sustainable development of Vanya silks in Himalayan states. pp. 93-95.
 Klein, A. R. and Dunkel, F. V. (2003) New Pest management frontiers: Linking plant medicine to traditional knowledge. American Entomologist. 49, 7 –73
Saxena, R. C. (1987) Antifeedants in tropical pest management. Insect Sci. Applic. 8, 731 –736. Schmutterer, H. (1990) Properties and potential of natural pesticides from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 35, 271 – 297.
Sharma, S. P., Kishore, R. and Thangavelu, K. (2002) Evaluation of azadirachtin against Notolophus antiqua Linn. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) a major pest of primary tasar food plants. Sericologia. 42, 265 - 269.
Singh, R. N. (1999) Use of neem against pest of tasar food plants. Indian Silk. 38, 20-22 Singh, R. N. and Sinha, S. S. (1993) Neem to control pests of tasar. Indian Silk. 32, 42- 44.
Singh, R. N. and Thangavelu, K. (1996) Influence of neem compound on the growth and development of immature forms of the uzifly Blepharipa zebina. Pestology. 20, 16-21
Singh, R. N., Samson, M. V. and Datta, R. K. (2000) Pest Management in Sericulture. Indian Publisher Distributor, Delhi, India.
 Singh, R. N. and Saratchandra, B. (2002) An Integrated Approach in the Pest Management in Sericulture. Int. J. Indust. Entomol. 5, 141-151.
Singh, R. N. and Saratchandra, B. (2004a) Properties and potential of natural pesticides against sericultural pests. New Horizon of Animal Science (eds. B. N. Pandey, N. Armugam, P. Natraj, S. Pranjith) Publ. Zool. Soc. India. pp. 200–206.
Singh, R. N. and Saratchandra, B. (2004b) Use of neem in plant protection in Vanya silk. Proc. National workshop on Potential and Strategies for sustainable development of Vanya silks in Himalayan states. pp. 125-130.
Singh, G. B., Sahay, A., Roy, D. K., Sahay, D. N., Kulshrestha, V., Roy, G. C. and Sinha, B. R. R. P. (2004) Efficacy of Botanicals against virosis in tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury. Proc. National workshop on Potential and Strategies for sustainable development of Vanya silks in Himalayan states. pp. 260-263
Singh, R. N., Maheshwari M. and Saratchandra, B. (2004) Sampling, Surveillance and Forecasting of insect population for Integrated Pest Manage-ment in Sericulture. Int. J. Indust. Entomol. 8, 17-26.