Trypsin-based diet for the growth indices of Spanish mackerel

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Anesthesia Techniques Department, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon, Iraq

2 Al-Nisour University College, Baghdad, Iraq

3 College of Medical Technology, Medical Lab Techniques, Al-farahidi University, Iraq

4 Department of Medical Laboratory Technics, Al-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq

5 Medical Laboratory Techniques Department, Hilla University College, Babylon, Iraq

6 Medical Laboratory Technology Department, College of Medical Technology, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq

7 Microbiology Research Group, College of Pharmacy, Al-Ayen University, Thi-Qar, Iraq

8 Department of Pharmacy, Ashur University College, Baghdad, Iraq

9 Altoosi University College, Najaf, Iraq

10 College of Veterinary Medicine, Hama University, Hama, Syria

11 College of Veterinary Medicine, Al Furat University, Deirez-Zor, Syria

12 Plant Nutrition Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt


To protect the sustainability of the aquaculture industry, fishmeal is being replaced with alternative feed ingredients such as plant-based protein components. However, most plant-based feedstuffs contain a wide array of anti-nutritional factors. These factors can potentially hinder nutrient consumption, which in turn can interfere with fish health and performance. Protease enzyme supplements can reverse the impacts of anti-nutritional factors and enhance fish growth. This study aimed to incorporate the trypsin enzyme into the food of Spanish mackerel and explore its effects on growth factors, body composition, and blood biochemical parameters. This study was a fully-randomized experiment with three treatments and three replications. This experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design with three treatments and three replications, and the trypsin enzyme was added to the fish diet at different levels: 0%, 0.015%, and 0.025%. For a timeframe of 60 days, the fish were given experimental diets. The growth indices considered were: specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), condition factor (CF), feed conversion ratio (FCR), weight gain percentage (WGP), and hepatic steatosis index (HSI). The results showed that FCR, PER, SGR, and WGP at enzyme levels of 0.015% and 0.025% were substantially different from the control group.


Barlow, SM, Bimbo, A, Jensen, OB, & Smith, GL 1981, International collaborative study of an automated method for the determination of crude protein in fish-meals. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 32: 732-736.
Bui, XD, Vo, CT, Bui, VC, Pham, TM, Bui, TTH, Nguyen-Sy, T, Nguyen, TDP, Chew, KW, Mukatova, MD, & Show, PL 2021, Optimization of production parameters of fish protein hydrolysate from Sarda Orientalis black muscle (by-product) using protease enzyme. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 23: 31-40.
Da Silva, RR 2018, Enzymatic synthesis of protein hydrolysates from animal proteins: Exploring microbial peptidases. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9: 735.
Edwards, P, Zhang, W, Belton, B, & Little, DC 2019, Misunderstandings, myths and mantras in aquaculture: its contribution to world food supplies has been systematically over reported. Marine Policy, 106: 103547.
Elbesthi, RTA, Özdemir, KY, Taştan, Y, Bilen, S, & Sönmez, AY 2020, Effects of ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) extract on blood parameters, immune response, antioxidant enzyme activities, and growth performance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 46: 1295-1307.
Fattah, S, Gani, A, Ahmedy, I, Idris, MYI, & Targio Hashem, IA 2020, A survey on underwater wireless sensor networks: Requirements, taxonomy, recent Advances, and open research challenges. Sensors, 20 (18) :5393.
Frempong, NS, Nortey, TN, Paulk, C, & Stark, CR 2019, Evaluating the Effect of replacing fish meal in broiler diets with either Soybean meal or poultry by-product Meal on Broiler Performance and total feed cost per kilogram of gain. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 28: 912-918.
Gasco, L, Gai, F, Maricchiolo, G, Genovese, L, Ragonese, S, Bottari, T, & Caruso, G 2018, Fishmeal alternative protein sources for aquaculture feeds. In: Feeds for the Aquaculture Sector, Springer, pp. 1-28.
Ghafoor, F, Maqsood, Z, & Ghafoor, A 2020, Importance of living diversity: A way towards a less-expensive aquaculture. Global Scientific Journals, 8(9).
Goda, AM-S, Ahmed, SR, Nazmi, HM, Baromh, MZ, Fitzsimmons, K, Rossi Jr, W, Davies, S, & El-Haroun, E 2020, Partial replacement of dietary soybean meal by high-protein distiller’s dried grains (HPDDG) supplemented with protease enzyme for European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax fingerlings. Aquaculture Nutrition, 26: 842-852.
Gyan, WR, Ayiku, S, & Yang, Q 2019, Effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean products in fish and crustaceans performance. Journal of Aquatic Research Development, 10: 573.
Hassaan, MS, Mohammady, EY, Soaudy, MR, Elashry, MA, Moustafa, MM, Wassel, MA, El-Garhy, HA, El-Haroun, ER, & Elsaied, HE 2021, Synergistic effects of Bacillus pumilus and exogenous protease on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth, gut microbes, immune response and gene expression fed plant protein diet. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 275:114892.
Hassan, A, Gado, H, Anele, UY, Berasain, MA, & Salem, AZ 2020, Influence of dietary probiotic inclusion on growth performance, nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation activities and methane production in growing lambs. Animal Biotechnology, 31: 365-372.
Hodar, AR, Vasava, RJ, Mahavadiya, DR, & Joshi, NH 2020, Fish meal and fish oil replacement for aqua feed formulation by using alternative sources: A review. Journal of Experimental Zoology, India, 23: 13-21.
Jagadeesan, Y, Meenakshisundaram, S, Saravanan, V, & Balaiah, A 2022, Greener and sustainable bio-valorization of poultry waste into peptone via Bacto-enzymatic digestion: a breakthrough chemical-free bio-economy waste management approach. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 1-23.
Janbakhsh, S, Hosseini Shekarabi, SP, Shamsaie Mergan, M 2018, Nutritional value and heavy metal content of fishmeal from the Southwest Caspian Sea. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 16: 307-317.
Jingting, Y, Danting, G, Chun, K, Min, J, & Xueming, H 2020, Effect of soybean antigenic protein on feed palatability of fishmeal replaced diets for obscure puffer (Takifugu fasciatus) and the alternation of diet preference by domestication. Aquaculture Reports, 17:100332.
Kaiser, F, Harbach, H, & Schulz, C 2022, Rapeseed proteins as fishmeal alternatives: A review. Reviews in Aquaculture.
Kanani, HG, Ramezani, S, & Zoriezahra, SJ 2014, Effects of two dietary exogenous multi-enzyme supplementation, Natuzyme® and beta-mannanase (Hemicell®), on growth and blood parameters of Caspian salmon (Salmo trutta caspius). Comparative Clinical Pathology, 23: 187-192.
Kasozi, N, Iwe, G, Sadik, K, Asizua, D, & Namulawa, VT 2019, Dietary amino acid requirements of pebbly fish, Alestes baremoze (Joannis, 1835) based on whole body amino acid composition. Aquaculture Reports, 14:100197.
Kidd, MT, Maynard, CW, & Mullenix, GJ 2021, Progress of amino acid nutrition for diet protein reduction in poultry. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 12: 1-9.
Kirimi, JG, Musalia, LM, Magana, A, & Munguti, JM 2020, Protein quality of rations for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) containing oilseed meals. Journal of Agricultural Science,  12 (2): 82, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v12n2p82.
Kumar, Y, Mahilang, KKS, Khare, N, Tiwari, S, & Patel, Y 2018, A review of fish food product processing and development. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7: 2406-2407.
Kumari, R, Gupta, S, Singh, AR, Ferosekhan, S, Kothari, DC, Pal, AK, & Jadhao, SB 2013, Chitosan nanoencapsulated exogenous trypsin biomimics zymogen-like enzyme in fish gastrointestinal tract. PloS one, 8(9): e74743.
Kuz’mina, VV, Slynko, EE, Kulivatskaya, EA, Karpova, EP, & Nguyen, DC 2022, Activity of peptidases and glycosidases of the digestive tract in some species of bony fish of Vietnam. Marine Biological Journal, 7: 55-64.
Li, M, Liang, H, Xie, J, Chao, W, Zou, F, Ge, X, & Ren, M 2021, Diet supplemented with a novel Clostridium autoethanogenum protein have a positive effect on the growth performance, antioxidant status and immunity in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Aquaculture Reports, 19:100572.
Li, X, Zheng, S, & Wu, G 2021, Nutrition and functions of amino acids in fish. In: Amino Acids in Nutrition and Health. Springer, pp.  133-168.
Maas, RM, Verdegem, MC, Debnath, S, Marchal, L, & Schrama, JW 2021, Effect of enzymes (phytase and xylanase), probiotics (B. amyloliquefaciens) and their combination on growth performance and nutrient utilisation in Nile tilapia. Aquaculture, 533:736226.
Metwally, RA, Soliman, SA, Latef, AAHA, & Abdelhameed, RE 2021, The individual and interactive role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Trichoderma viride on growth, protein content, amino acids fractionation, and phosphatases enzyme activities of onion plants amended with fish waste. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 214:112072.
Muhlia-Almazán, AT, & Fernández-Gimenez, AV 2022, Understanding the Digestive Peptidases from Crustaceans: from Their Biochemical Basis and Classical Perspective to the Biotechnological Approach. Marine Biotechnology, 1-12.
Naylor, RL, Kishore, A, Sumaila, UR, Issifu, I, Hunter, BP, Belton, B, Bush, SR, Cao, L, Gelcich, S, & Gephart, JA 2021, Blue food demand across geographic and temporal scales. Nature communications, 12: 1-14.
Nogales-Mérida, S, Gobbi, P, Józefiak, D, Mazurkiewicz, J, Dudek, K, Rawski, M, Kierończyk, B, & Józefiak, A 2019, Insect meals in fish nutrition. Reviews in Aquaculture, 11: 1080-1103.
Opiyo, MA, Marijani, E, Muendo, P, Odede, R, Leschen, W, & Charo-Karisa, H 2018, A review of aquaculture production and health management practices of farmed fish in Kenya. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine, 6: 141-148.
Samaddar, A 2018, A review of fish meal replacement with fermented biodegradable organic wastes in aquaculture. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 6: 203-208.
Shen, Y, Greco, M, Faltinsen, OM, & Nygaard, I, 2018, Numerical and experimental investigations on mooring loads of a marine fish farm in waves and current. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 79: 115-136.
Siddik, MA, Howieson, J, Fotedar, R, & Partridge, GJ 2021, Enzymatic fish protein hydrolysates in finfish aquaculture: a review. Reviews in Aquaculture, 13: 406-430.
Smiley, A, & Abedian, A 2021, Effect of fucoidan (MariVet) on growth Performance, blood biochemical factors and body composition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of Aquaculture Development, 15: 31-40.
Tan, K, & Zheng, H 2020, Ocean acidification and adaptive bivalve farming. Science of the Total Environment, 701:134794.
Vogt, G 2021, Synthesis of digestive enzymes, food processing, and nutrient absorption in decapod crustaceans: A comparison to the mammalian model of digestion. Zoology, 147:125945.
Wang, J, & Ji, H 2019, Influence of probiotics on dietary protein digestion and utilization in the gastrointestinal tract. Current Protein and Peptide Science, 20: 125-131.
Wang, J, Beusen, AH, Liu, X, & Bouwman, AF 2019, Aquaculture production is a large, spatially concentrated source of nutrients in Chinese freshwater and coastal seas. Environmental Science & Technology, 54: 1464-1474.
Xu, S-D, Zheng, X, Dong, X-J, Ai, Q-H, & Mai, K-S 2022, Beneficial effects of phytase and/or protease on growth performance, digestive ability, immune response and muscle amino acid profile in low phosphorus and/or low fish meal gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) diets. Aquaculture, 555:738157.
Ye, J, Liu, X, Wang, Z, & Wang, K 2011, Effect of partial fish meal replacement by soybean meal on the growth performance and biochemical indices of juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture International, 19: 143-153.
Zahmatkesh, A, Karimzadeh, K, Faridnia, M 2020, Effect of dietary selenium nanoparticles and chitosan oligosaccharide on biochemical parameters of Caspian roach (Rutilus caspicus) under malathion stress. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 18: 59-71.