Effects of planting date and spraying with organic fertilizers on vegetative growth indices of dill plant (Anethum graveolens L.)

Document Type : Research Paper


Horticulture and Landscaping Department, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, Iraq


A factorial field experiment in a split-plot design was carried out in Kannan district, Diyala Governorate, mid-east of Iraq, during the agricultural season 2020-2021 to study the effect of planting date and spraying with organic fertilizers on growth and qualitative characteristics of dill plant (Anethum graveolens L.). The experiment included three replicates, each comprising 15 factorial treatments. Experiment factors included three planting dates (20/9, 10/10 and 1/11) and three types of organic fertilizers (humic fertilizers, seaweed extracts and amino acids). Organic fertilizers were sprayed three times during the vegetative growth stage. Results indicate that the plants growing on the first date (20/9) significantly outperformed in plant height, the number of leaves, chlorophyll content and dry matter percentage, which amounted to 42.48 cm, 5.8 leaf plant-1, 28.06 mg per 100 g fresh weight and 8.52%, respectively. The second date (10/10) were significantly superior in vegetative yield which amounted to 26.791ton ha-1. All fertilizers were significantly outperformed control treatment in plant height, the number of leaves and branches, chlorophyll percentage, vegetative yield and dry matter percentage.


Abdol, KS 1988, Physiology of nutrients in plants. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. University of Salah Al-Din, Iraq.
Abou El Magd, MM, El Bassiony, AM & Fawzy, ZF 2006, Effect of organic manure with or without chemical fertilizer on growth quality of some varieties of broccoli plant. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2: 791-798.
Al Rawi, KM & Khalf Allah, AM 2000, Design and analysis of agricultural experiments. Dar al-Kutub Foundation for Printing and Publishing, University of Mosul, Iraq, 2nd Ed. 
Al Sahaf, FH 1989, Applied plant nutrition. Dar al-Hikma Press for Printing and Publishing. University of Baghdad, Iraq.
Al Said, MA & Kamal, AM 2008, Effect of foliar spray with folic acid and some amino acids on flowering, yield and quality of sweet pepper. Mansoura University Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 33: 7403-7412.
Al Samarrai, MH 2001, Effect of nitrogen and phosphate fertilization and planting date on growth and quantity. MSc. Dissertation, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad.
Al Shahat, NAZ 1990, Plant hormones and agricultural applications. National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.
Al Shahmani, NSK 2020, The role of gibberellic acid and tryptophan in vegetative and qualitative growth indicators and some active compounds of the sweet basil plant Ocimum basilica L. MSc. Dissertation, College of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Iraq.
Al Zuhairi, HQK 2018, Effect of planting date and spraying with ascorbic acid and liquid organic fertilizer Algidex on the growth of dill Anethum graveolens L., its seed and oil yield and its biochemical activity. MSc. Dissertation, College of Agriculture, Al-Basrah University.
Anonymous 2005, Humic acid, organic plant food and root growth promoters. An earth friendly company (Ecochem) 17/2/2007. File G: humic acid.htm.
Azza, SA & Yousef, RS 2015, Response of basil plant (Ocimum sanctum L) to foliar spray with amino acids or seaweed extract. Journal of Horticultural Science & Ornamental Plants, 7: 94 - 106.
Azza, SM & Yousef, RS 2015, Response of basil plant (ocimum sanctum L) to foliar spray with amino acids or seaweed extract. Journal of Horticultural Science & Ornamental Plants, 7: 94 - 106.
Bajracharya, D 1999, Experiments in plant physiology. Narosa Publishing, Host, New Delhi, India.
Bouras, M, Abu Turabi, B & Al Basit, I 2006, The production of vegetable crops, the theoretical part, Daoudi Press.
Chen, Y & Aviad, T 1990, Effect of humic substances on plant growth. In: P, MacCarthy (Ed.), Humic substances in soil and crop sciences: selected readings. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Sciences, Madison, pp. 161-186.
Gaafar, AM, Morsi, AA & El Ghamy, HE 2013, Chemical, nutritional and biochemical studies of garden cress protein isolate. Nature and Science, 11: 8-13.
Ibrahim, SMM, Tahah, LS & Farahat, MM 2010, Influence of foliar application of peptone on growth, flowering and chemical composition of Helichrysum bracteatum plants under different irrigation intervals. Ozean Journal of Applied Science, 3: 143-155.
Ihsan, SA 1999, A study of some factors affecting the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the essential oils of mint and tangerine. PhD Dissertation, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
Kamali Omidi, T, Khorgami, A, Taleshi, K 2022, Effect of foliar application of humic acid levels and nano-fertilizer application on some quantitative and qualitative traits of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) in climatic conditions of Khorramabad area, Iran. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 467-476.
Khichar, ML & Niwas, R 2006, Microclimatic profiles under different sowing environments in wheat. Journal of   Agrometrology, 8: 201 -209.
Krug, H 1991, Gemüseproduktion, 2.Auflage. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin and Hamburg, 541 p.
Mikkelsern, RL 2005, Humic materials for agriculture. Better Crops, 89: 6-10.
Ragimov, AO, Mazirov, MA, Zinchenko, SI, Shitikova, AV 2021, Features of environmentally-friendly product obtaining from sugar and fodder beets in conditions of zinc contamination of sod-podzolic sandy loam soils. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 939-945.
Rakhimova, OV, Khramoy, VK, Sikharulidze, TD, Yudina, IN 2021, Influence of nitrogen fertilizers on protein productivity of vetch-wheat grain under different water supply conditions. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 951-954.
Sajt, TFK 2013, Effect of cultivar, liquid organic fertilizer and mowing dates on growth and production of dill plant Anethum graveolens L. MSc. Dissertation, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
SAS 2012, Statistical analysis system, User’s Guide Statistical, Version 9th ed. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA.
Shaheen, AM, Rizk, FA, Elbassiony, AM & El Shal, ZSA 2007, Effect of ammonium sulphate and agricultural sulphur on the Artichoke plant growth, heads yield and its some physical and chemical properties. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 3: 82-90.
Shehata, SM, Heba, S. Abdel AZem, Abou El Yazied, A & El Gizawy, AM 2011, Effect of foliar spraying with amino acid and seaweed extract on growth, chemical constitutes, yield and its quality of celeriac plant. European Journal of Scientific Research, 58: 257-265. 
Taiz, L & Zeiger, V 2010, Plant physiology. 4th ed. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publisher Sunderland, Massachusetts-AHS, USA.
Turan, M & Kose, C 2004, Seaweed extract improve copper uptake of grapevine. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B- Soil and plant Science, 54: 213- 220.