Age determination, growth indices and reproduction biology of Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) from four reservoirs in Golestan Province, Southeast Caspian Sea

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Fishery, Faculty of Natural Resource, University of Gonbad Kavous, Gonbad Kavous, Iran

2 Department of Fishery, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resource of Gorgan, Gorgan, Iran


This study aimed to determine age and growth indices of Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio collected a total of 942 specimens on a monthly basis from February through September 2015 in three dam lakes including Golestan, Boostan and Voshmgir and one reservoir named Alakoli from the Southeast Caspian Sea. The largest specimen was a female with 220 mm in total length (TL) and 139.787 g in weight from Voshmgir. The maximum condition factor of the fish increased markedly during late April- August in all areas. Growth pattern was positive allometric in females from Alakoli, while negative allometric in females from Golestan, Boostan and Voshmgir and also in males from Voshmgir. The isometric growth observed in males from Golestan and Boostan as well as from Alakoli. The growth parameters of von Bertalanffy fit to the mean observed total lengths-at-age for each sex separately were estimated as L= 378.09 mm, K= 0.12, t0= -0.35 for females, L= 309.38 mm, K= 0.17, t0= -0.02 for males, and as L= 355.74 mm, K= 0.13, t0= -0.35 for total population in Golestan; L= 299.06 mm, K= 0.18, t0= -0.10 for females, L= 574.17 mm, K= 0.07, t0= -1.04 for males, and as L= 338.43 mm, K= 0.15, t0= -0.34 for total population in Boostan; L= 296.37 mm, K= 0.20, t0= -0.20 for females, L= 186.23 mm, K= 0.51, t0= -0.42 for males, and as L= 302.94 mm, K= 0.19, t0= -0.18 for total population in Voshmgir; and L= 347.99 mm, K= 0.04, t0= -0.12 for females, L= 530.92 mm, K= 0.01, t0= -0.18 for males, and as L= 477.73 mm, K= 0.01, t0= -0.40 for total population in Alakoli. A prolonged spawning period was observed from April through August. Maximum egg diameter and absolute fecundity were 1.39 mm and 72865 oocytes in population inhabiting Voshmgir respectively.


Abramenco, MI, Poltavtseva, TG & Vasetskii, SG 1998, Discovery of triploid males in lower don population of the crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Doklady Akademii Nauk, 363: 415-418.
Balık, I, Özkök, R, Çubuk, H & Uysal, R 2004, Investigation of some biological characteristics of the silver crucian carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch1782) population in lake Eğirdir. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 28:19-28.
Bostancı, D, Polat, N & Akyürek, M 2007, Some biological aspects of the Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) inhabiting in Eğirdir lake. International Journal of Natural Engineering Sciences, 1: 55-58.
Bulut, S, Mert, R, Algan, B, Özbek, M, Ünal, B & Konuk, M 2013, Several growth characteristics of an invasive Cyprinid fish (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782).Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 5:133-138.
Buth, DG, Dowling, TE & Gold, JR 1991, Molecular and Cytological Investigation. In: I.J. Winfield and J.S. Nelson (Eds.), Cyprinid Fishes: Systematics, Biology and Exploitation. Chapman and Hall, London. 83-126.
Çınar, Ş, Çubuk, H, Özkök, R, Tümgelir, L, Çetinkaya, S, Erol, KG & Ceylan, M 2007, Growth features of silver Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782) population in lake Beyşehir. Turkish Journal of Aquatic Life, 5: 401-409.
Copp, GH, Bianco, PG, Bogutskaya, NG, Erös, T, Falka, I, Ferreira, MT, Fox, MG, Freyhof, J, Gozlan, RE, Grabowska, J, Kováč, V, Moreno-Amich, R, Naseka, AM, Peňáz, M, Povž, M, Przybylski, M, Robillard, M, Russell, IC, Stakėnas, S, Šumer, S, Vila-Gispert, A & Wiesner, C 2005, To be, or not to be, a non-native freshwater fish? Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 21: 242–262.
Crivelli, AJ 1995, Are fish introductions a threat to endemic freshwater fishes in the northern Mediterranean region. Biological Conservation, 72: 311-319.
Erguden, SA 2015, Determination of condition factor and length-weight relationship of the Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) inhabiting Seyhan Dam Lake. International Journal of  Science and  Technology Research, 1: 157-166.
Erkoyuncu, İ 1995, Fisheries Biology and Population Dynamics. Ondokuz Mayıs Publications, 95, Ondokuz Mayıs University Press, Samsun, Page 265 (in Turkish).
Froese, R 2006, Cube law, condition factor and weight-length relationships: history, meta-analysis and recommendations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 22: 241-253.
Froese, R & Binohlan, C 2000, Empirical relationships to estimate asymptotic length, length at first and length at maximum yield per recruit in fishes, with a simple method to evaluate length frequency data. Journal of Fish Biology, 56: 758-773.
Gaygusuz, O, Tarkan, AS & Gaygusuz, CG 2007, Changes in the fish community of the Omerli reservoir (Turkey) following the introduction of non-native gibel carp [C. gibelio (Bloch, 1782)] and other human impacts. Aquatic Invasions, 2: 117–120.
Geldiay, R & Balık, S 1999, Freshwater Fishes of Turkey. Aegean University Fisheries Faculty publications, No: 46, (3. press), Aegean University print house, Bornova-İzmir, 532 p. (In Turkish).
Innal, D & Erk’kan, F 2006, Effect of exotic and translocated fish species in inland waters of turkey. Review in Fish Biology and  Fisheries, 16: 39-50.
Jiang, YG, Yu, HX, Chen, BD & Liang, SC 1983, Biological effect of heterologous sperm on gynogenetic offspring in Carassius auratus gibelio. Acta Hydrobiolgica. Sinica, 8:1-13.
Kalous, L, Memiș, D & Bohlen, J 2004, Finding of triploid Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1780) (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) in Turkey. Cybium, 28:77-79.
Kırankaya, ŞG & Ekmekçi, FG 2013, Life-history traits of the invasive population of prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Actinopterigi: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), from Gelingüllü Reservoir, Yozgat, Turkey. Acta Ichthyolica et Piscatoria, 43: 31-40 (In Turkish).
Le Cren, ED 1951, The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in Perch, Perca  fluviatilis. Journal of Animal Ecology, 20: 201-219.
Money, HH & Hobbs, RJ 2000, Invasive species in a changing world. Islands Press, Washington DC, USA,
Nikolskii, GV 1963, The ecology of fishes (translated by L. Birkett). Academic Press, London,  352 p.
Oliva-Paterna, FJ, Torralva, MM & Fernandez-Delgado, C 2002, Age, growth and reproduction of Cobitis paludica in a seasonal stream. Journal of Fish Biology, 60: 389-404.
Ȍzcan, G 2007, Distribution of the non-native fish species, pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758), in Turkey. Aquaic Invasions, 2: 146- 148.
Özkök, R, Çubuk, H, Tümgelir, L, Uysal, R, Çınar, Ş, Küçükkara, R, Erol, GK & Ceylan, M 2007, Eğirdir Gölü’ndeki gümüşi havuz balığı (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782) populasyonunun büyüme özellikleri. [Growth features of silver Crucian carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782) population in Lake Eğirdir.] Türk Sucul Yaşam Dergisi, 3–5: 313–321 (In Turkish).
Patimar, R 2009. Some biological parameters of silver Crucian carp, Carassius auratus, in the international wetlands of Alma-Gol and Ala-Gol (Golestan Province, Iran). Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 8:163-173.
Pauly, D & Munro, JL 1984, Once more on the comparison of growth in fish and vertebrates, ICLARM Fishbyte,  2: 21.
Rainbow, P 1998, Impacts of invasions by alien species. Journal of Zoology, 246: 247-248.
Ricker, WE 1975, Computation and Interpretation of Biological Statistics of Fish Population. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 191-382.
Sarı, HM, Balık, S, Ustaoğlu, MR & İlhan, A 2008, Population structure, growth and mortality of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) in Buldan Dam Lake. Turkish Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Science, 8:25-29.
Seyyad-Bourani, M, Nezami, SA & Kiabi, BH 2001, Biological study and population dynamics of Carassius auratus in Anzali Lagoon. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Science, 10: 57-70 (In Persian).
Simberloff, D 2003, Confronting introduced species: a form of xenophobia? Biological Invasions, 5: 179-92.
Sparre, P, Ursin, E & Venema, SC 1989, Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment. Part 1, Manual,  FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper,No: 306-1, FAO, Roma.  337p.
Szczerbowski, JA 2001, Carassius Jarocki, 1822, In: Bănărescu, PM, Paepke, HJ, (eds.) The freshwater fishes of Europe. Vol. 5. Cyprinidae 2. Part 3. Carassius to Cyprinus. Gasterosteidae. Aula-Verlag, Wiebelsheim, Germany. pp. 1–78.
Tarkan, AS, Gaygusuz, Ö, Gürsoy, Ç, Saç, G & Copp, G 2012, Circumstantial evidence of gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, and reproductive competition exerted on native fish species in a mesotrophic reservoir. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 19: 167–177.
Tarkan, AS, Gaygusuz, Ö, Gürsoy, Ç, Acıpınar, H & Bilge, G 2006, A new predator species Carassius gibelio, (Bloch, 1782): successful or not? I. Balıklandırma ve Rezervuar Yönetimi Sempozyumu Bildirileri, 7-9 February 2006, Antalya, Turkey, T K B Mediterranean Fisheries Research Production and Education Institute, Antalya.
Tsoumani, M, Liasko, R, Moutsaki, P, Kagalou, I & Leonardos, I 2006, Length-weight relationships of an invasive Cyprinid fish (Carassius gibelio) from 12 Greek lakes in relation to their trophic states. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 22: 281-284.
Vetemaa, M, Eschbahum, R, Albert, A & Saat, T 2005, Distribution, sex ratio and growth of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) in coastal and inland water of Estonia (north-eastern Baltic Sea). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 21: 287-291.
Williamson, M 1999, Invasions. Ecopraphy, 22: 5-12.
Zar, JH 1999, Biostatistical analysis. 4th ed. Prentice-Hall International, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 266p.
Zou, Z, Cui, Y,  Gui,  J & Yang, Y 2001, Growth and feed utilization in two strains of gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio: paternal effects in a gynogenetic fish. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 12: 54-58.