Cortisol and its metabolites in juvenile Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii Brandt, 1869 in response to short-term food deprivation


1 0

2 G. *, V. Yavari2, M. Bahmani3, M. A. Yazdani3, R. Kazemi3, V. Morshedi4, K. Eslamlo5


In this study, the effect of short-terms starvation (0, 2, 4 and 8 days) on plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels and also hepatosomatic index in Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii, was investigated. After acclimation to experimental conditions for 10 days using formulated diet, 180 juvenile Siberian sturgeons (mean weight ? S.E.=19.3?0.4, n=15) were randomly distributed among twelve circular, 500l, fiber glass holding tanks with a flow-through system. In this study, control fish (C) were fed with formulated diet to apparent satiation four times daily throughout the experiment. The other three groups were deprived from feed for 2 (T1), 4 (T2) and 8 (T3) days, respectively. Blood samples were taken at the end of the starvation periods for biochemical analyses. Plasma cortisol, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were not significantly different between control and starved fish at the end of the food deprivation periods, but plasma glucose levels were significantly lower in the starved groups, compared to the control fish. HSI index significantly decreased in all starvation groups, except T1, in comparison to the control. The results suggest that energy reserves mobilization during starvation in Siberian sturgeon may be achieved without the involvement of cortisol. Moreover, in this species there are clear indications of metabolic adjustment ability to short periods of food deprivation.


Ali, M., Nicieza, A. and Wootton, R. J. (2003). Compensatory growth in fishes: a response to growth depression. Fish and Fisheries.4: 147–190. BagherzadehLakani, F., Sattari, M., Sharifpour, I. and Kazemi, R. (2013).Effect of hypoxia, normoxia and hyperoxia conditions on gill histopathology in two weight groups of beluga (Huso huso).Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences.11: 78-84.Barcellos, L. J. G., Marquze, A., Trapp, M., Quevedo, R. Z. M. and Ferreia, D. (2010). The effects of fasting on cortisol, blood glucose and liver and muscle glycogen in adult Jundiai Rhamdia quelen. Aquaculture.300: 231-236. Barton, B. A. (2002). Stress in fishes: a diversity with particular reference in changes in circulating corticosteroids. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 42: 517–525. Barton, B. A., Schreck, C. B. and Fowler, L. G. (1988). Fasting and diet content affect stress induced changes in plasma glucose and cortisol in juvenile Chinook salmon. Progressive Fish culturist. 50: 16–22. Bayunova, L., Barannikova, I. and Semenkova, T. (2002). Sturgeon stress reactions in aquaculture. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 18: 397–404. Bilinski, E. and Gardner, L. J. (1968).Effect of starvation on free fatty acid level in blood plasma and muscular tissues of rainbow trout salmo gairdneri. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada.25: 1555-1560. Blak, D. and Shinner, E. R. (1986). Features of lipid transport system of fish as demonstrated by studies on starvation in rainbow trout. Journal of Comparative Physiology.156: 497-502. Blom, S., Andersson, T. B. and Forlin, L. (2000). Effects of food deprivation and handling stress on head kidney 17-alphahydroxyprogesterone 21-hydroxylase activity, plasma cortisol and the activities of liver detoxification enzymes in rainbow trout. Aquatic Toxicology. 48: 265–274. Caruso, G., Denaro, M. G., Caruso, R., Genovese, L., Mancari, F. and Maricchiolo, G. (2012). Short fasting and re-feeding in red porgy (Pagrus pagrus, Linnaeus 1758): Response of some hematological, biochemical and non-specific immune parameters. Marine Environmental Research.81: 18-25. Cataldi, E., Di Marco, P., Mandich, A. and Cataudella, S. (1998). Serum parameters of Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii (Pisces: Acipenseriformes): effects of temperature and stress. Comparative Biochemistry and PhysiologyA.121: 351-354. Cortisol and its metabolites in...48 Ceinos, R. M., Polakof, S., Rodriguez Illamola A., Soensas, J. L. and Miguez, J .M. (2008).Food deprivation and refeeding effects on pineal in doles metabolism and melatonin sylatoninsynthes in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. General and comparative Endocrinology. 156: 410-417. Chang, L. L., Kau, M. M., Wun, W. S. A., Ho, L. T. and Wang, P. S. (2002).Effects of fasting on corticosterone production by zonafasciculata-reticularis cells in ovariectomized rats. Journal of Investigative Medicine.50: 86–94. De Pedro, N., Delgado, M. J., Gancedo, B. and Alonso-Bedate, M. (2003).Changes in glucose, glycogen, thyroid activity and hypothalamic catecholamine’s in tench by starvation and re-feeding. Journal of Comparative PhysiologyB. 173: 475–481. Duncan, D. B. (1955). Multiple ranges and multiple F- test. Biometrics.11: 1–42. Echevarría, G., Martínez-Bebiá, M. and Zamora, S. (1997).Evolution of biometric indices and plasma metabolites during prolonged starvation in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A.118: 111–123. Einen, O., Morkore, T., Rora, A. M. B. and Thomassen, M. S. (1999). Feed ration prior to slaughter-a potential tool for managing product quality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture. 178: 149-169.Einen, O. and Thomassen, M. S. (1998). Starvation prior to slaughter in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) II. White muscle composition and evaluation of freshness, texture and colour characteristics in raw and cooked fillets. Aquaculture. 169: 37–53. Farbridge, K. J. and Leatherland, J. F. (1992). Plasma growth hormone levels in fed and fasted rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are decreased following handling stress. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 10: 67-73. Furne, M., Garsia-Gallego, M., Kidalgo, M. C., Morales, A. E., Domezahn, A., Domezain, J. and Sanz, A. (2008). Effect of starvation and re-feeding on digestive enzyme activities in sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A.149: 420-425. Grigorakis K. and Alexis M. N. (2005). Effects of fasting on the meat quality and fat deposition of commercial-size farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) fed different dietary regimes. Aquaculture Nutrition. 11: 341–344. Holloway, A. C., Reddy, P. K., Sheridan, M. A. and Leatherland, J. F. (1994).Diurnal rhythms of plasma growth hormone, somatostatin, thyroid hormones, cortisol and glucose concentrations in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, during progressive food deprivation. Biological Rhythms Research.25: 415–432. Hung, S. S. O., Liu, W., Li, H. B., Storebakken, T. and Cui, Y. B. (1997).Effect of starvation on some morphological and biochemical parameters in white sturgeon, Acipenser Ashouri et al., 49transmontanus. Aquaculture. 151: 357–363. Ince, B. W. and Thorpe, A. (1976).The effects of starvation and force-feeding on the metabolism of the Northern pike, Esox lucius L. Journal of Fish Biology.8: 79–88. Jorgensen, E. H., Bye, B. E. and Jobling, M. (1999). Influence of nutritional status on biomarker responses to PCB in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Aquatic Toxicology. 44: 233–244. Jorgensen, E. H., Vijayan, M. M., Aluru, N. and Maule, A. G. (2002). Fasting modifies Aroclor 1254 impact on plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate responses to a handling disturbance in Arctic charr. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C. 132: 235–245. Kamra, S. K. (1966). Effect of starvation and refeeding on some liver and blood constituents of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada.23: 975-982. Kelley, K. M., Haigwood, J. T., Perez, M. and Galima, M. M. (2001).Serum insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) as markers for anabolic/catabolic condition in fishes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 129: 229–236. Kirchner, S., Seixas, P., Kaushik, S. and Panserat, S. (2005).Effects of low protein intake on extra-hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression and peripheral glucose phosphorylation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 140: 333–340. Larsson, A. and Lewander, K. (1973). Metabolic effects of starvation in the eel, Anguilla anguilla L. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 44: 367-374. Leatherland, J. F. and Farbridge, K. J. (1992). Chronic fasting reduces the responses of the thyroid to growth hormone and TSH, and alters the growth hormone-related changes in hepatic 5 ╠ümomodeiodinase activity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 87: 342-353. Leiner, K. A., Han, G .S. and Mac Kenzie, D. S. (2000).The effects of photoperiod and feeding on the diurnal rhythm of circulating thyroid hormones in the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 120: 88–98. Machado, C. R., Garofalo, M. A. R., Roselino, J. E. S., Kettelhut I. C. and Migliorini, R. H. (1988). Effects of starvation, re-feeding and insulin on energy-linked metabolic processes in catfish (Rhamdia hilarii) adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 71: 429-437. Maxime, V., Nonnotte, G., Peyraud, C., Williot, P. and Truchot, J. P. (1995).Circulatory and respiratory effects of a hypoxic stress in the Siberian sturgeon. Respiration Physiology. 100: 203-212. Mommsen, T. P., Vijayan, M. M. and Moon, T. W. (1999). Cortisol in teleost’s: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 9: 211–268. Montserrat, N., Gómez-Requeni, P., Bellini, G., Capilla, E., Pérez-Sánchez, J., Navarro, I. and Gutiérrez, J. (2007). Distinct role Cortisol and its metabolites in...50 of insulin and IGF-I and its receptors in white skeletal muscle during the compensatory growth of Gilthead Sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture. 267: 188–198. Navarro, I. and Gutiérrez, J. (1995).Fasting and starvation. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes (eds. Hochachka P. W., Mommsen T.), pp 393–434. Elsevier Science B. Ortiz, R. M., Wade, C. E. and Ortiz, C. L. (2001). Effects of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in post weaned northern elephant seal pups. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.280:790–R795. Palmegiano, G. M., Bianchini, M., Boccignone, M., Forneris, G., Sicuro, B. and Zoccarato, I. (1993).Effects of starvation and meal timing on fatty acid composition in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rivista Italiana Acquacultura. 28: 5-11. Pascual, C., Sanchez, A., Zenteno, E., Cuzon, G., Gabriela, G., Brito, R., Gelabert, R., Hidalgo, E. and Rosas, C. (2006).Biochemical, physiological, and immunological changes during starvation in juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture. 251: 416– 429. Perez-Jimenez, A., Cardenete, G., Hidalgo, M. C., Garcia-Alcazar, A., Abellan, E. and Morales, A. E. (2012).Metabolic adjustments of Dentex dentex to prolonged starvation and re-feeding. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 38: 1145–1157. Perez-Jimenez, A., Guedes, M. J., Morales, A. E. and Oliva-Teles, A. (2007). Metabolic responses to short starvation and re-feeding in Dicentrarchus labrax. Effect of dietary composition. Aquaculture. 265: 325–335. Peterson, B. C. and Small, B. C. (2004). Effects of fasting on circulating IGF binding proteins, glucose, and cortisol in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Domestic Animal Endocrinology. 26: 231–240. Pickering, A. D., Pottinger, T. G. and Sumpter, J. P. (1987).On the use of dexamethasone to block the pituitary–interregnal axis in the brown trout, Salmo trutta L. General and comparative Endocrinology. 65: 346–353. Pirhonen, J. and Forsman, L. (1998).Effect of prolonged feed restriction on size variation, feed consumption, body composition, growth and smelting of brown trout, Salmo trutta. Aquaculture. 162: 203-217. Pirhonen, J., Schreck, C. B., Reno, P. W. and Ogut, H. (2003).Effect of fasting on feed intake, growth and mortality of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, during an induced Aeromonassalmonicida epizootic. Aquaculture. 216: 31–38. Pottinger, T. G., Rand-Weaver, M. and Sumpter, J. P. (2003). Overwinter fasting and re-feeding in rainbow trout: plasma growth hormone and cortisol levels in relation to energy mobilization. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 136: 403–417. Power, D. M., Melo, J. and Santos, C. R. A. (2000).The effect of food deprivation and re-feeding on the liver, thyroid hormones and transthyretin in sea bream. Journal of Fish Biology.56: 374–387. Ashouri et al., 51Rasmussen, R. S., Ostenfeld, T. H. and McLean, E. (2000). Growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout subjected to changes in feed lipid concentrations. Aquaculture International. 8: 531–542. Reddy, P. K., Vijayan, M. M., Leatherland, J. F. and Moon, T. W. (1995). Does RU486 modifies hormonal responses to handling stressor and cortisol treatment in fed and fasted rainbow trout? Journal of Fish Biology. 46: 341–359. Simpkins, G. (2002). Response of body condition and composition of juvenile rainbow trout to fasting, activity and water temperature. University of Wyoming. pp. 98–103. Solati, N.H. and Falahatkar, B. (2007). Stress responses in sub-yearling great sturgeon to the air exposure. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences. 5: 99-103.Small, B. C. (2005).Effect of fasting on nychthemeral concentrations of plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and cortisol in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 142: 217–223. Sumpter, J. P., Le Bail, P. Y., Pickering, A. D., Pottinger, T. G. and Carragher, J. F. (1991). The effect of starvation on growth and plasma growth hormone concentrations of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. General and comparative Endocrinology. 83: 94–102. Varnavsky, V. S., Sakamoto, T. and Hirano, T. (1995).Effects of premature seawater transfer and fasting on plasma growth hormone levels of yearling Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Parr. Aquaculture. 135: 141–145. Vijayan, M. M., Maule, A. G., Schreck, C. B. and Moon, T. W. (1993).Hormonal control of hepatic glycogen metabolism in food-deprived, continuously swimming Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 50: 1676–1682. Weatherley, A. H. and Gill, H. S. (1981).Recovery following periods of restricted ration and starvation in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Journal of Fish Biology.18: 195-208. WendelaarBonga, S. E. (1997). The stress response in fish. Physiological Reviews. 77: 591–625. Wieser, W., Krumschnabel, G. and Ojwang-Okwor, J. P. (1992).The energetic of starvation and growth after re-feeding in juveniles of three cyprinid species.Environmental Biology of Fishes.33: 63-71.