Impacts of Forest-Based Activities on Woodland Characteristics


1 Department of Forestry, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1144, Somesara,

2 O. Rafieyan*1, A. A. Darvishsefat2, S. Babaii1, A. Mataji1


The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of forest-based activities on the conditions of the Ganaveh woodland in the southern Zagros, Iran, and to suggest strategies for improving the implementation of forest resource management plans. Woodland inventory data was gathered in 2003, accompanied with data from interviews in 2008, were used in this study. The results show that there is forest degradation in terms of a lack of forest regeneration and a relatively high incidence of bad quality trees. These defects in the woodland attributes reflect the effects of the traditional management on vegetation cover, and are the causes of concern regarding the sustainability and conservation of the woodland. Overgrazing, seed gathering, and drought in some years are probably the main reasons for the poor natural regeneration in the area. Forest activities over the last decades could be the main causes of the relatively high rate of bad quality oak trees and the high rate of oaks in coppice form. Some efforts to gain acceptance from the woodland users for protecting the preserved areas from animal grazing and seed gathering for a period could be a better alternative for woodland rehabilitation than seeding.


Arekhi, S., Heydari, M., Pourbabaei, H. (2010) Vegetation-Environmental Relationships and Ecological Species Groups of the Ilam Oak Forest Landscape, Iran, Caspian J. Env. Sci. 8: 115-125.
Boudru, M. (1961) Geographie Forestieere. Belgique: Institut Agronomique de I'Etata, Gembloux. Chambers, R. (1981) Rapid rural appraisal: rationale and repertoire. Public Administration and Development. 1: 95–106.
Debnath, D., Dasgupta, S. (2006) Livelihood generation and poverty reduction attempts in Joint Forest Management Activities in Madhya Pradesh. International Forestry Review. 8: 241–250. DoE/GOIRI (Department of Environment, Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran). (2004) Conservation of Biodiversity in the Central Zagros Landscape Conservation Zone.
Ellis, F. (2000) Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Ffolliott, P.F., Brooks, K.N., Gregersen, H.M., Lundgren, A.L. (1995) Dryland
The Impacts of Forest-Based...174 Forestry: Planning and Management. Wiley, New York.
Ghazanfari, H., Namiranian, M., Sobhani, H. and Mohajer, M.R. (2004) Traditional forest management and its application to encourage participation for sustainable forest management in the northern mountains of Kurdistan Province, Iran. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. 19: 65–71.
Hoekstra, T.W. and Shachak, M. (1999) Arid lands management: toward ecological sustainability. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. Jazirehi, M.H. and Ebrahimi R.M. (2003) Silviculture in Zagros. 1st ed. University of Tehran, Tehran (in Persian).
Kaushal, K.K.and Kala, J.C. (2004) Applying the sustainable livelihood approach to joint forest management projects in India. International Forestry Review. 6: 13–18.
Latorre, J.G., García-Latorre, J. and Sanchez-Picón, A.( 2001) Dealing with aridity: Socio-economic structures and environmental changes in an arid Mediterranean region. Land Use Policy. 18: 53-64.
Menitsky, Y.L.( 2005) Oaks of Asia. Fedorov, A.A. (ed.). Enfield, NH, Science Publishers. Nyland, R.D.( 2002) Silviculture: Concepts and Applications. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Papachristou, T.G. and Papanastasis, V.P. (1994) Forage value of Mediterranean deciduous woody fodder species and its implication to management of silvo-pastoral systems for goats. Agroforestry Systems. 27: 269–282.
Pourhashemi, M., Mohajer, M.R., Zobeiri, M., Amiri, G. Z.and Panah, P.(2004) Identification of forest vegetation units in support of government management objectives in Zagros forests, Iran. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. 19: 72–77.
Pourreza, M., Shaw, J.D.and Zangeneh, H. (2008) Sustainability of Wild Pistachio (Pistacia Atlantica Desf.) in Zagros Forests, Iran. Forest Ecology and Management. 255: 3667-3671.
Pratt, M. and Rasmussen, G.A. (2001) Determining your stocking rate. Range Management Fact Sheet. Quinn, C.H., Huby, M., Kiwasila, H.and Lovett, J.C.( 2007). Design principles and common pool resource management: an institutional approach to evaluating community management in semi-arid Tanzania. Journal of Environmental Management. 84: 100–113.
Rackham, O.(2001) Trees and woodland in the British landscape. the complete history of Britain’s trees, woods & hedgerows. Phoenix press, London.
Ringrose, S., Vanderpost, C. and Matheson, W.( 1996) The Use of Integrated Remotely Sensed and GIS Data to Determine Causes of Vegetation Cover Change in Southern Botswana. Applied Geography. 16: 225-242.
Sagheb-Talebi, K., Sajedi, T. and Yazdian, F. (2004) Forests of Iran. Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands, Iran (in Persian with English summary). Salehi, A., Karltun, L.Ch., Soderberg, U. and Eriksson, L.O.( 2010 ) Livelihood dependency on woodland resources in southern Zagros, Iran. Caspian J. Env. Sci. 8: 181-194.
Salehi, A., Wilhelmsson, E. and Söderberg, U. (2008) Land cover changes in a forest watershed, southern Zagros, Iran. Land Degradation & Development. 19: 542–553.
Salehi, A., (2009) Livelihood dependency and management on semiarid oak forests. Doctoral diss. Dept. of Forest Resource Management, SLU. Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae vol. 2009:33.
Samari, D., Azadi, H., Zarafshani, K., Hosseininia, GH. and Witlox, F. (2012). Determining appropriate forestry extension model: Application of AHP in the Zagros area, Iran. Forest Policy and Economics. 15: 91-97.
Soltani, A., Angelsen, A., Eid, T., Noori Naieni, M.S. and Shamekhi, T. (2012). Poverty, sustainability, and household livelihood strategies in Zagros, Iran. Ecological Economics. 79: 60-70.
Sunderlin, W.D., Angelsen, A., Belcher, B., Burgers, P., Nasi, R., Santoso, L. and Wunder, S. (2005) Livelihoods, forests, and conservation in developing countries: an overview. World Development. 33:1383–1402.
Salehi et al, 175Tomaselli, R. (1977). The degradation of the Mediterranean maquis. Ambio. 6, 356–362 Vedeld, P., Angelsen, A., Sjaastad, E., Berg, G.K. (2004) Counting on the environment: forest incomes and the rural poor. World Bank, Washington.
Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.and Glasbergen, P. ( 2007) Partnerships in forest governance. Global Environmental Change. 17:408–419. Wezel, A. and Bender, S. (2004) Degradation of Agro-Pastoral Village Land in Semi-Arid Southeastern Cuba. Journal of Arid Environments. 59: 299-311.