In Vitro Inhibition of Growth in Saprolegnia sp. Isolated


1 O. Rafieyan*1, A. A. Darvishsefat2, S. Babaii1, A. Mataji1

2 A. Aghaei Moghaddam*1


Saprolegnia is one of? the? ?most important agents decreasing the eggs survival rate in sturgeon hatcheries. There are some chemical substances for controlling the fungal infection of eggs. In this study, an attempt was made to introduce a ?germ negative bacterium, Pseudomonas aeroginosa (PTCC1430)(Persian Type Culture Collection) as a biocontrol??ling agent of? ?water mold. Saprolegnia was isolated from the eggs of some infected Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus? in a sturgeon hatchery and then ?was purified. P. aeroginosa was cultured in Potato dextrose Agar (PDB) media and then was prepared in 5 concentrations (103,104,105, while challenging with fungi in petri dishes under laboratory conditions. The results showed that by increasing the concentration of the bacteria in plates, ???hyphal growth of the fungi was reduced. The ?highest concentration of P. aeroginosa concentration (107) roughly stopped the ?fungi growth and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was 104cfu.m-l. Results? in this study implied the potential?? of? P. aeroginosa (PTCC1430) as a biological agent in controlling saprolegniosis.


Ahmadzadeh,M.;Afsharmanesh, H.; Javan-Nikkhah,M.;Sharifi-Tehrani ,A. (2006) Identification of some molecular traits in fluorescent Pseudomonads with antifungal activity, Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, 4: 245-253
Adams, T.;Eiteman M.A;. Hanel B. M. (2002) Solid state fermentation of broiler litter production of biocontrol agents. Bioresource Technology. 33-41
Bakhshalizadeh, S., Bani A., Abdolmalaki S., Nahrevar R., Rastin R. (2011) Age, growth and mortality of the Persian Sturgeon, Acipenserpersicus, in the Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 9(2) 159-167
 Baradaran Noveiri,S.; Alipour, A. and Pourkazemi,M. (2005)Sperm morph ology and spermatocrit study of Persian sturgeon(Acipenser persicus). Extended Abstracts ,Aquaculture. 5thInternational Symposium on sturgeon. Iran. 13-15
Barannikova,I.A. ; Bayunova,L.V. ;Seme-nkova,T.B. (2005) Serum sex steroids and its specific cytosol binding in pituitary and gonads of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtiiBR.)at final maturation. Extended Abstracts ,Aquaculture.5th International Symposium on sturgeon.Iran. 18-21
Barannikova,I.A.; Artyukhin, E.N. ; Dyubin .V.P.(2005) Main points of sturgeon breeding biotechnology under present state of the Caspian sturgeon fishery.Extended Abstracts ,Aquaculture.5th International Symposium on sturgeon. Iran.:16 -18
Bly,J.E.; Quiniqu S.M.; Lawson L.A.; and Clam L.W..(1997) Inhibition of saprolegnia pathogenic for fish by Pseudomonas fluorescenceFish Diseases, 20(1):35-40. Dawson ,v.k.; Rach,J.J.; and Schreier ,T.M.(1994) Hydrogen Peroxide as a fungicide for fish culture.Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada.94 ( 2):54-56.
Forneris,G.; Bellardi,S.; Palmegiano, G.B.; Saroglia,M. ;Sicuro,B. ;Gasco ,L.Zoccarato, (2003) The use of ozone in trout hatchery to reduce saprolegniasis incidence. Aquaculture,221: 157-166.
Ghiasi.m.; A.R. Khosravi; M. Soltani; M.Binaii.; H.Shokri.; Z.Tootian.;M. Rostamibashman.; and H. Ebrahim zadehmousavi,(2010) Characteriza- tion of Saprolegnia isolated from Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persic- us)eggs based on physiological and molecular data,Journal of Melical Mycology, 20( 1):1-7.
Ghiasi.m.,(2009) Identification molec- ular and protein pattern of pathog- enic fungi (Saprolegnia sp.)isolated from sturgeon and bony fish infected eggs from propagation and cultivated centers of Mazandaran province,PhD. Thesise .Veterinary faculty of Tehran Universi- ty,No:343,118pp.
Gaikowski,M.P.; Rach,J.J.; Dorbish M.; Hamilton, J.; T.Harder; L.A. Lee; C. Moen; and A.Moore. (2003) Efficacy of hydrogen proxide to control mortality associateded with saprolegniosis on Walleye, white sucker, and paddlefish eggs. North American Journal of Aquaculture 65:349-355.
Gaikowski,M.P.; Rach,J.J.;Olson,J.J.; and Ramsay,R.T.(1998) Toxicity of hydrogen perxid treatments to rain bow trout eggs. J. of Animal Health. 10 (3) :241-251.
 Gieseker, C.M.; Serfling, S.G.; Rim- schuessel, R..(2006) Formalin treatment to reduce mortality associated with Saprolegnia parasitica in rainbow trout , Oncorhynchus mykiss .Aquaculture. 253:120-129.
Gartwright,D.K.;Chilton,W.S.; Benson ,D.M.(1995) Pyrrolnitrin and phena- zine production by Pseudomonas cepacia,strain 55B,a biological agent of Rhizoctoniasolani ,Applied Microbiology . Biotechnology .43:211-221.
Ohel,V.; Singh,A.; Vimal,M.; Ashvini, P.; chatper,H.S.(2006) Biocontrol. African Journal of Biotechnology . 2:(2 ).54-72. Gopalakannan.A and Arul .v. (2011) Inhibitory effectivity of probiotic Entrococcus faecium against Aeromonas hydrophila confers protection against hemorrhagic septicemia in common carp. Internatunal Aquaculture :DOI :10. 1007/S10499-011-9415-2
Hatai,K.;and L.G. Willoughby .(1988) Saprolegnia parasitica from rainbow truot inhibited by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Bulletin of the European Association of fish pathologists, 8:27-29
Hanjavanit Ghutima; Nilubol Kitanch- aroen and Charuwan Rakmanee. (2008) Exprimental Infection of Aqauatic Fungi on Eggs of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burch ) . K KU Sci.J.(Supplement ) 36-43. Holt, J.G.; N.R. Kreig; P.H.A. Sneath ;J.T.Staley and S.T. Williams Bergeys (1993) Manual of Determi- native Bacteriology,.9th ed. Willia- ms and Wilkis,Baltimore ,MD.pp:71-84
Hussein,A. M.;H.M. Osman; AhmedI.E. NoorEL deen;Waled,S.E. Solman; Omima ,A. Aboud.(2010) A trial for Induction of saprolegniosis in Mugil cephalus with special reference to biological control .Journal of Academic Science. 6(6): Hussein,M.M.A.; and K.Hatai,( 2001 ) In vitro inhibition of Saprolegnia by bacteria isolated from lesions of salmonids.Fish pathology, 36(2) :73-78.
Jalilpur, Jalil; Shenavar Masouleh .A.; Masoumzadeh .M. (2005) Fungal flora in Acipenser persicus eggs.5thInternational Symposium of sturgeon fishes. 119-121.
Khomvilai,Chotima.;Kashiwagi, Masaaki and Yoshioka, Motoi. (2006) Fungicidal activities of Horseradish Extract on a fish–pathgen Oomycetes ,Saprolegnia parasitica .Bulletain of faculty .Biosources. Mie University, ( 33):1-7.
Khodhbandeh Saber; Abtahi bahram .(2006) Effects of sodium chloride ,formalin and Iodine on the hatching success of common carp (Cyprinus carpio ) eggs. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 22:(1): 54-56.
Lategan M.J.; Torpy F.R. and Gibson L.F..(2004) Control of sapro- legniasis in the eel Anguilla australis Richardson, by Aeromonas media strain A199. Aquaculture, 20:419-427.
Lategan M.J.; Torpy F.R. and Gibson L.F..(2004) Biocontrol of sapro- legniosis in Silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus (Mitchell) by Aeromonas mediastrain A199 . Aquaculture, 235: 77-88. Minaxi. Saxena,J. (2010). Character- ization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa RM-3 as a Potential Biocontrol Agent .
Mycopathology.DOI:10.1007/s11046-010-9307-4 Noga Edward,J.,(1993). Water Mold Infections of Freshwater Fish: Recent Advences. Annual Review of Fish Diseases, pp.293-304 Osman, H.M.; Solman,W.E.., Noor EL Deen, A.E. and Laila, A. Mohamed .(2008) Induction of saprolegniosis in Oreochromis niloticus with special
Aghaei Moghaddam et al.,239reference to its Biological Control. Global veterinaria, 2(1):32-37. Pourkazemi1
M., Khoshkholgh M., Nazari S., Azizzadeh Pormehr L.(2012) Genetic relationships among collections of the Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, in the south Caspian Sea detected by mitochondrial DNA–Restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences., 10 (2):215-226.
Rach,J.J.; T.M. Schreier; S.M. Schleis; and.M.P. Gaikowski.(2005) Efficacy of Formalin and Hydrogen proxide to increase survival of channel catfish with saprolegniasis .Journal of North American Aquaculture, 67:312-318.
Rosowo, Joseph; Okoth, Oyoo; Elijah, Ngugi; Charles, Chege.(2007) Effect of formaldehyde, Sodium chloride,Potassium Permanganate and hydrogen peroxide on hatch rate of African catfish Clarias gariepinus eggs. Aquaculture, 269 : 271-277.
Schreier,T.M.; Rach ,J.J.;and Howe,G. E. (1996) Efficacy of formain, Hyd- rogen Proxide and Sodium Chloride on fungal infected rainbow trout eggs.Aquaculture.14:(4):323-331.
Seddiqui,I.A.; and Shaukat, S.S. ( 2003) Effects of Pseudomonas aeroginosa on the diversity of culturable microfungi and nematodes associated with tomato: impact on root-knot disease and plant growth. Soil Biology and Biochem- istry.35:(10):1359-1368
Verschuere Laurent; Geert Rombsut ;Patrick Sorgeloos; and Willy Verstraete.(2000)
Probiotics Bact- eria as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture, Microbiology and Mulecular Biology Review,164: (4):655-671