Optimal Forest Road Density Based on Skidding and Road Construction Costs in Iranian Caspian Forests


1 Dept. of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Somehe Sara 1144, Iran

2 Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmehsara, P.O. Box: 1144 ,Iran.


Information on the productivity, costs and applications of the logging system is a key component in the evaluation of management plans for the rehabilitation and utilization of Caspian forests. Skidding and road construction costs are expensive forest operations. Determining the optimum forest road network density is one of the most important factors in sustainable forest management. Logging method is an important factor to determine the optimum road network density. In this research, in order to determine the optimum road network density, skidding cost and road construction cost were calculated. Linear programming model was used in order to reduce the skidding costs and to determine the optimal forest road network density. Our aim was to determine the minimum skidding cost for Timber Jack and Clark skidders for different average skidding distance. The results showed that it is less costly if Clark skidder is used for skidding. Then the optimal road network density at this manner was 8 m/ha.
Akay, A. (2006) Minimizing total costs of forest roads with computer-aided design model. Academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences. 31: 621–633.
Anderson, A.E and Nelson, J. 2004. Projecting Vector_based Road Networks with shortest Path Algorithm. Canadian J. For. Res., 34: 1444-1457.
Aruga, K. 2005. Tabu search optimization of horizontal and vertical alignments of forest roads. J. For. Res., 10: 275–284.
Bryer, J. B. 1983. The effects of a geometric redefinition of the classical road and landing spasing model through shifting. J. For. Sci., 29: 670-674.
Chung, W and Sessions. j. 2001. NETWORK 2001 – Transportation Planning Under Multiple Objectives. The International Mountain Logging and 11th Pacific Northwest Skyline Symposium, pp: 194-200.
 Coulter, E.D., sessions, J and Michaeal, G.W. 2006. Scheduling forest road maintenance using the analytic hierarchy process and heuristics. The Finnish Society of Forest Science. Silva Fennica 40(1).
Demir, M and Tolga O. 2004. A research on forest road planning and projecting by inroads software in Bolu region of Turkey. American J. Appl. Sci. 1: 295-301.
Eghtesadi, A. 1991. Study method of wood extraction from forest to factory yard in Nekah Forest. M.Sc thesis, College of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran, 144 p.
Eghtesadi, A. 2008. Evaluation of wood productivity rate in primary and secondary transportation in Nekachub region. Iranian J. For. Poplar Res. 16: 274-291.
Eghtesadi, A. Sobhani, H. Rafatnia, N. (2002) Study of timber transportation in the Vaz research forest. Iranian J. Res. Const., 12. 23- 34.
FAO (1980) Planning forest roads and harvesting systems, FAO Forestry Paper, 148 p.
Favreau, J. and Gingras, F. (1998) An Analysis of Harvesting Costs in Eastern Canada. Special report, No. SR-129, 10 p.
Ghaffarian, M.R. (2003) Examination of amount of damages to regeneration and soil due to transporting wood with traditional Method. M.Sc thesis, College of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran, 109 p.
Ghaffarian M.R. and Sobhani, H. (2008) Optimum road spacing of ground based skidding operations in Nowshahr, Iran, Caspian J. Env. Sci., 6: 105-112.
Ghaffarian, M.R and Sobhani. H. (2007) Optimization of an existing forest road network using Network 2000. Croatian J. For. Eng., 28: 2.
Goulet, V. L. Sirois and Iff, H. (1979) A survey Optimal forest road density 86 of timber harvesting simulation models for use in the South.USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report, SO-25.
Heinimann, H. R. (1997) A computer model to differentiate skider and cable-yarder based road network concepts on steep slopes. J. For. Res., 3: 1-9.
Heralt L. (2002) Using the ROADENG system to design an optimum forest road variant aimed at the minimization of negative impacts on the natural environment. J. For. Sci., 48: 361-365.
Ledoux, B. and Huyler, K. (2001) Cost comparisons for three hrvesting systems operating in Northern hardwood stands. USDA, Forest Service. Research paper NE-715.
Liu, S., Corcoran, T. J. (1993) Road and landing spacing under the consideration of surface dimension of road and landings. J. For. Eng., 5: 49-53.
Mostafanehad, A. (1995) Study of cost production of skidder Timberjack 450C and optimal length of skid trails. Master Thesis., Tehran University, Faculty of Natural resources. Naghdi, R. (2004) Study of optimum road density in tree length and cut to length systems, PhD Dissertation, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tarbiat Modarres, Tehran, Iran, 177 p.