Geopolitics and Environmental Issues in the Caspian Sea


1 Y. Zeinolabedin*, M.S. Yahyapour and Z. Shirzad Dept. of Political Geography, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran * Corresponding author?s E-mail:

2 Dept. of Political Geography, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran


Nowadays, a noticeable part of the relations among the states turn around the environment protection. Therefore, the right for ever-creasing use of the existing resources of this inland sea cannot be exclusive to any Caspian State and the aftermath involves all countries of this basin. In this respect, agreement on political border and boundaries with the Caspian Sea?s ecosystem is a difficult issue. The unstable resources of fish reserves, underground oil pools, migratory animals and instability of resources that so often seem to be harmful, particularly for their potential power of passing through borders, are the subject of geopolitical disputes among the states of this basin. According to the above-mentioned points, the basic question in the present article is: ?What is the role of the environmental issues in geopolitical relations of the Caspian States?? Therefore, it is supposed that a consideration of environmental issues in exploiting different resources of the Caspian Sea can set up peace among the Caspian countries.
Afshar, S.I. (2001) Mazandaran Sea. Office of Political and International Studies. 89-145. Agnew, J. (2002) Making Political Geography. Arnold Publisher. New York. 157- 163.
Ahmadi, L.B. (2004) A Guide to the Khazar Region, Central Asian Countries and the South Caucasus. Abrar Moaser. 13-14.
Braden, K. & Shelley, F. (2004) Epidemic Geopolitics. Translated by Farshchi, A. & Rahnama, H. Dore Âli Jang. 234.
Buzan, B. and others (2007) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Translated by Tayyeb, A. R. Pajhuheshkade Motale'ate Rahbordi Tehran, Iran.
CEP, (2005) Caspian Environment Program. UN. 5. CEP, (2007) Matched Small Grants and Micro Environmental Grants of the Caspian Environment Program. UN. 10.
Cox, K., R. Low, M. & Robinson, J. (2008) The SAGE Handbook of Political Geography. SAGE Publication. 205- 230.
Darabadi, Q.P, (2003) The History of Khazar Region Geography, Geopolitics and Contemporary Era. Central Asia and Caucasus Studies. 275.
Dehqan, F. (2003) A Survey on Oil and Gas of the Khazar Sea and its Effect on Security of the Country and Islamic Republic. Hameh Press. 275. Zeinolabedin et al., 121
Dehqan, F. (2005) Khazar Sea and National Security. Bashir Elm& Adab Press. 131.
Johnston R. J., Taylor P.J. & Watts M. (2004) Geographies of Global change Translated by Noorian N. Dore Âli Jang. 449- 569.
Dodds K. (2000) Geopolitics in the changing world. Translated by Ahmadi poor Z. Balagh Danesh Publication. 61- 97.
Glassner, M. & Fahrer, C. (2004), Political Geography, John Wiley Publication, 554-562.
Hafeznia, M. R. (2005), Principles and Concepts of Geopolitics, Papeli Publication. 70-73.
Molayi, A.R. (2005), A Survey on Geopolitics Reader, Daneshkade Emam Bagher. 256- 274. Molaie, Y. (2005) Sovereignty and International Law. Elm Press. 343- 353.
Mostaqimi, B., (2005) Protection of Khazar Sea Environment. Foreign Ministry Press, 57- 65.
Muir, R. (1997) Political Geography: A New Introduction. Translated by Mir Heydar D. Armed Forces Geography Org. 425- 477.
Nadsa, (2003) Khazar and Interests of Islamic Republic of Iran. Sayeh Roshan Press. 13.
O'Tuathail G., Dalby S. & Routhledge P. (2000) The Geopolitics Thoughts in Twentieth Century. Translated by Hafeznia M. R. & Nasiri H., Office of Political and International Studies. 405- 555.
Safari, M. (2005) Structure and Political Changes in Russian Federation and Relations with Islamic Republic of Iran. Foreign Ministry Press. 127-129.
Safavi, S.Y. (2000) An Introduction to Iran’s Military Geography. 2nd Vol. Armed Forces Geography Org. pp. 45-46.
Sand, Ph. (1994) Principles of International Law, Framework, Standards and Implementation. Manchester University Press. 189 p.
United Nations (2007) Basic Charts of Khazar, Caviar and other Challenges. UN. 53. Vaezi, M. (2007) Geopolitics of Crisis in Central Asia & Caucasus. Foreign Ministry Press. 279 p.
Yahyapoor, M. S. (2008) The Function of Guilan in the Geopolinomie of the Caspian Region. Islamic Azad University (Rasht Branch).
Zeinolabedin, Y. (2004) Political Geography and Management of Seas (with an Emphasis on Sea Borders of Iran. Islamic Azad University (Science & Research Branch). 238.
Zeinolabedin, Y. (2007) An Overview on Advanced Political Geography, Guil Press.154 -161.
Zeinolabedin, Y. & Paknejad, H. R. (2007) An Introduction to Environmental Geopolitics. Islamic Azad University (Science & Research Branch). 105.
Zeinolabedin, Y. (2008) Geopolitical Understand of Environmental Issues as a New Phenomenon (Case Study: Caspian Sea) Islamic Azad University (Rasht Branch).