Effects of Ag and Pb metal accumulation on some biochemical parameters and anatomical characteristics of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae) plants

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Ecology, College of Sciences, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq

2 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq

3 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Basrah, Iraq

4 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Misan, Iraq



The study reported the effect of contamination of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. after exposure to Ag and Pb for four weeks. The results showed that the total protein, chlorophyll, carotene, and biomass declined gradually by elevating   the heavy metal concentrations. Elemental analyses of the leaves were performed using scanning electron microscopy with energy–dispersive- X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The main mineral of control treatment contained 11 elements including carbon (57.50%) followed by oxygen (22.76%) and trace iron and lead. The minerals in the leaves treated with 100 mg L-1 Pb exhibited 12 elements with high levels of lead (52.03%). The leaves treated with 100 mg L-1 Ag showed 11 elements with high levels of silver (43.02%) followed by carbon (34.95%) and oxygen (11.18%). Anatomical study indicated that the Ag and Pb can accumulate in internal tissues and causes several alterations such as shape of leaves, stems and roots, as well as thickness and number of cortical parenchymal cells. In addition, unrecognized the endodermis, and exodermis, the root thickness was 663.21 µm in control group, while in Ag and Pb treatments were 498.32 µm and 375.61 µm respectively.


Al Hakimil, A & Hamada, AM 2011, Ascorbic acid, thiamine or salicylic acid induced changes in some physiological parameters in wheat grown under copper stress. Plant Protection Science, 47: 92-108.
Ali, H., Khan, E & Sajad, MA 2013, Phytoremediation of heavy metals-concepts and applications. Chemosphere, 91: 869-881
Al Saadi, SAM, Al Asaadi, WM & Al Waheeb, AN 2013, The effect of some heavy metal’s accumulation on physiological and anatomical characteristic of some Potamogeton L. plant. Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 4:100-108.
Arnon, DI 1949, Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. photophenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 24: 1-5.
Atesi, I, Suzen, HS, Aydin, A & Karakay, A 2004, The oxidative DNA base damage in tests of rats after intraperitoneal cadmium injection. Biometals, 17: 371-377.
Ayyappan, D, Sathiyaraj, G & Ravindran, KC 2016, Phytoextraction of heavy metals by Sesuvium portulacastrum L. a salt marsh halophyte from tannery effluent. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 18:453-459.
Azizi, A, Krika, A, Krika, F 2020, Heavy metal bioaccumulation and distribution in Typha latifolia and Arundo donax: implication for phytoremediation, Iran. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 18: 21-29.
Budovich, LS 2021, Effects of heavy metals in soil and plants on ecosystems and the economy. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 991-997.
Cobbett, CS 2000, Phytochelatins and their role in heavy metal detoxification. Plant Physiolgy123:825–33.
Cresser, MS & Parsons, JW 1979, Analytica Chimica Acta, 109: 431-436.
Dmitri, S & Maria, FTB 2008, Effects of heavy metal contamination upon soil microbes: lead induced changes in general and denitrifying microbial communities as evidenced by molecular markers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 5: 450-456.
Ederli, L, Reale, L, Ferranti, F & Pasqualini, S 2004, Responses induced by high concentration of cadmium in Phragmites australis roots. Physiologia Plantarum, 121: 66-74.
Feng, J, Lin, Y, Yang, Y, Shen, Q, Huag, J, Wang, S, Zhu, X & Li, Z 2018, Tolerance and bioaccumulation of Cd and Cu in Sesuvium portulacastrum. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 147:306-312.
Ghnaya, T, Nouairi, I, Slama, I, Messedi, D & Grignon, C 2005, Cadmium effects on growth and mineral nutrition of two halophytes: Sesuvium portulacastrum and Mesembryanthemum crystallinumJournal of Plant Physiology, 162: 1133-1140.
Ghnaya, T, Slama, I, Messedi, D, Grignon, C, Ghorbel, MH & Abdelly, C 2007, Effects of Cd2+ on K+, Ca2+ and N uptake in two halophytes Sesuvium portulacastrum and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum: Consequences on growth. Chemosphere, 67: 72-79.
Gomes, MP, Marques, TC, Nogueira, MO, Castro, EM & Soares, AM 2011, Ecophysiological and anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of heavy metal in Brachiaria decumbens. Scientia Agricola, 68: 566-573.
Guo, TR, Zhang, GP & Zhang, YH 2007, Physiological changes in barley plants under combined toxicity of aluminium, copper and cadmium. Colloids Surf Biointerfaces, 57: 182-188.   
Gupta, K, Gaumat, S & Mishra, K 2011, Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India. Journal of Environmental Biology, 32:591-597.
Hall, JL 2002, Cellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification and tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 53: 1-11.
Hamsa, N, Yogesh, G, Usha Koushik, S & Patil, L 2017, Nitrogen transformation in Soil: Effect of heavy metals. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6: 816-832.  
Hewson, I & Fuhrman, JA 2006, Improved strategy for comparing microbial assemblage fingerprints. Microbial Ecology, 51: 147-153.
Islam, E, Yang, X, Li, T, Liu, D, Jin, X & Meng, F 2007, Effect of Pb toxicity on root morphology, physiology and ultrastructure in the two ecotypes of Elsholtzia argyi. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 147: 806-816.
Johansan, DA 1968, Plant Microtechnique, McGraw Hill, New York, 487 pp.
Kabata-Pendias, A 2011, Trace elements in soils and plants. Chemical Rubber Company Press, Boca Raton, 201-213.
Kalaikandhan, R, Vijayarengan, P, Sivasankar, R & Mathivanan, S 2014, The pigment content of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. under copper and zinc stress. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3: 1056-1066
Keunen, E, Peshev, D, Vangronsveld, J, Wim, E & Cuypers, A 2013, Plant sugars are crucial players in the oxidative challenge during abiotic stress: Extending the traditional concept.  Plant, Cell & Environment, 36: 1242-1255.
Kirk, JTO & Allen, RL 1965, Dependence of chloroplast pigments synthesis on protein synthetic effects on actilione. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 21:523–530
Lokhande, V, Gor, B, Desai, N, Nikam, T & Suprasanna, P 2013, Sesuvium portulacastrum, a plant for drought, salt stress, sand fixation, food and phytoremediation. A review Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33:329-348.
Lokhande, VH, Srivastava, S, Patade, VY, Dwivedi, S, Tripathi, RD, Nikam, TD & Suprasanna, P 2011, Investigation of arsenic accumulation and tolerance potential of Sesuvium portulacastrum  L. Chemosphere, 82: 529-534
Metcalfe, CR & Chalk, L 1950, Anatomy of the Monocotyledons, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 470pp
Miler, M & Gosar, M 2009, Application of SEM/EDS to environmental geochemistry of heavy metals. Geologija, 52: 69-78.
Mourato, MP, Moreira, IN, Leitão, I, Pinto, FR, Sales, JR & Martins, LL 2015, Effect of heavy metals in plants of the genus Brassica. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16:17975-17998.
Najeeb, U, Ahmad, W, Zia, MH, Zaffar, M & Zhou, W 2017, Enhancing the lead phytostabilization in wetland plant Juncus effusus L. through somaclonal manipulation and EDTA enrichment. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10: 3310-3317.
Naser, ZA, Abdul-Hameed, HM 2022, Removal of Cu (II) from industrial wastewaters through locally-produced adsorbent prepared from orange peel. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 45-53.
Paivoke, AEA 2002, Soil lead alters phytase activity and mineral nutrient balance of Pisum sativum. Environment Experimental Botany, 48: 61-73
Pal, M, Horvath, E, Janda, T, Paldi, E & Szalai, G 2006, Physiological changes and defence mechanisms induced by cadmium stress in maize. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 169: 239-246.
Palma, MJ, Sandalio, LM, Cropas, FJ, Romero Puertas, MC, Mc Carthy, I & del Rio, LA 2002, Plant proteases, protein degradation and oxidative stress: Role of peroxisomes. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 40: 521-530.
Patra, M, Bhowmik, N, Bandopadhyay, B & Sharma, A 2004, Comparison of mercury, lead and arsenic with respect to genotoxic effects on plant systems and the development of genetic tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 52: 199-223.
Qi, Y, Lian, K, Chin, KL & Ford, RL 2003, Using EDX/SEM to study heavy metal uptake and elemental composition in plant tissues. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 9: 1485- 1487.
Raize, O, Argaman, Y & Yannai, S 2004, Mechanisms of biosorption of different heavy metals by brown marine macroalgae. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 87: 451-458.
Saleh Ibrahim, A, Chyad Al-Hamadani, R,F, Fahim Chyad, T, H. Ali, S 2022, Using ozone for activation of manufactured porous media to improve the removal efficiency of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 283-294.
Shakoor, MB, Ali, S, Hameed, A, Farid, M, Hussain, S, Yasmeen, T, Najeeb, U, Bharwana, SA & Abbasi, GH 2014, Citric acid improves lead (Pb) phytoextraction in Brassica napus L. By mitigating Pb-induced morphological and biochemical damages. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 109: 38–47.
Sharma, P & Dubey, RS 2005, Lead Toxicity in Plants. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 17: 1-19.
Vernay, P, Gauthier Moussard, C & Hitmi, A 2007, Interaction of bioaccumulation of heavy metal chromium with water relation, mineral nutrition and photosynthesis in developed leaves of Lolium perenne L.  Chemosphere, 68: 1563-1575.
Wójcik, M, Vangronsveld. J, D´Haen, J & Tukiendorf, A 2005, Cadmium tolerance in Thlaspi caerulescens. Environmental of Experimental Botany, 53: 163-171.
Ghnaya.T, Lakhdar, A, Baioui,  R, Ghabriche, R, Mnasri, M, Sghair, S, Lutts, S & Abdelly, C 2010, Comparative study of Pb-phytoextraction potential in Sesuvium portulacastrum and Brassica juncea: Tolerance and accumulation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 183: 609-615
Zengin, FK & Kirbag, S 2007, Effects of copper on chlorophyll, proline, protein and abscisic acid level of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Journal of Environmental Biology, 28: 561-566.