Human and animal bites

Document Type : Reviewers


1 Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Centre (IDTMRC), Department of Aerospace and Subaquatic Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Besat Hospital, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Centre (IDTMRC), AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Humans and animal bites are a significant public health problem, with the majority of bites coming from dogs, cats and humans. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data, 250,000 human bites, 400,000 cat bites, and 4.7 million dog bites occur each year in the United States in adults and children, and 20% of these victims require medical care for injuries sustained. The estimated healthcare cost associated with management of cat and dog bites in the United States is > $ 850 million annually and does not take into account the costs to the patient in terms of time off work, rehabilitation, and permanent impairment. Infection is the most common bite-associated complication. The relative risk is determined by the species of the inflicting animal, bite location, host factors, and local wound care. Most infections bring about by mammalian bites are poly-microbial, with mixed aerobic and anaerobic species. The clinical presentation and appropriate treatment of the infected bite wounds vary according to the causative organisms. Human bite wounds have long had a bad reputation for severe infection and frequent complication. This article reviews the dog, cat and human bite. The content of this article provide a comprehensive overview of the types of bites, epidemiology, risk factors, microbiology, as well as using clinical guidelines and treatment through antibiotic therapy.


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