Determination of Giardia duodenalis (Metamonada: Hexamitidae) genotypes in water buffalo

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Philosophy, M. Auezov South Kazakhstan University, Tauke Khan street 5. Shymkent, Kazakhstan

2 University of Al-Ameed, College of Pharmacy, Iraq

3 College of MLT, University of Ahl Al Bayt, Kerbala, Iraq

4 Department of Pharmacy, Al-Noor University College, Nineveh, Iraq

5 Medical Technical College, Al-Farahidi University, Iraq

6 Medical Laboratory Techniques Department, Al-Mustaqbal University College, 51001 Hillah, Babylon, Iraq

7 Medical Laboratory Techniques Department, Mazaya University College, Iraq

8 Al-Hadi University College, Baghdad, 10011, Iraq

9 Institute of Natural Sciences and Geography, Abai Kazakh National pedagogical university, Almaty, Kazakhstan



Giardia duodenalis is considered as one of the important common protozoa between humans and animals in the intestine, which has eight groups (A-H) in different hosts. Studies have shown that the assemblages A, B, and E can infect livestock. In this study, the prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis was determined by polymerase chain reaction of ssu-rRNA gene and by performing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) on glutamate dehydrogenase gene of the parasite in water buffalo (n = 60) from Iraq. Based on the results, prevalence of G. duodenalis infection in water buffalo was estimated 25 % (n = 15), and according to age groups, higher infection group was 40% at ≤ 6 months, followed by > 6 -12 months, 1 -2 years, >2 years which showed 26.6%, 13.3% and 20.1%, respectively. The result of distribution of genotypes of G. duodenalis showed that assemblages AI and E were recorded in water buffalo isolates by 60 % and 40 %. Infection of assemblage AI was reported in buffaloes under 12 months. The present study determined that G. duodenalis is highly prevalent in water buffalo, and is involved in creating a zoonotic disease for giardiasis in Iraq. Due to the direct relationship between food and public health, as well as the influence of geographic and host conditions on the spread and pathogenicity, it is necessary to further investigate different genotypes and their common aspects between humans and livestock.


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