Preparation and utilization of fish waste protein concentrate in diets for young common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq



This research was carried out to investigate the extraction of a protein concentrate from the viscera of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. to use as a partial substitute for fish meal in the diets of young common carp and to test its effect on growth indices and feeding efficiency. Two methods were adopted to extract the protein concentrate; physical method and chemical. Proximate composition of raw fish wastes, fish protein concentrates and different experimental feeds were analysed and several parameters of fish feeding and growth efficiency of cultured fish were studied. Fish were fed with a formulated diet for 60 days. The protein concentrate extracted by physical method was selected to prepare experimental diets for its higher yield. Four diets with substitution ratios of 0, 25%, 50% and 75% of fish meal were prepared. The results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the experimental feeds as to total weight gain rates, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and protein productive value (PPV). The study concluded the possibility of partial replacement of fish meal up to 50% in the diets of young common carp without any significant deleterious influence on feeding and growth indices or noticeable adverse effect on cultured fish.


Abul Fadel, M, Ibrahim, S & Abd Allah, SH 2018, Rheological properties of crackers supplemented with fish protein concentrate (FPC). Journal of Food and Dairy Sciences, 9: 171-176, https//doi: 10.21608/JFDS.2018.35679.
Ahmed, R, A, Oterhals, A, Xue, Y, Skodvin, T & Samuelsen, TA 2019, Impact of fish protein concentrate on apparent viscosity and physical properties of soy protein concentrate subjected to thermomechanical treatment. Journal of Food Engineering, 259: 34-43, https//
Ahuja, I, Dauksas, E, Remme, J, Richardsen, R & Løes, AK 2020, Fish and fish waste-based fertilizers in organic farming–with status in Norway: A review. Waste Management, 115: 95-112, https//
Al Hassoon, AS 2017, Effect of diets contains different rates of fish protein concentrates on the growth rates of carp fingerlings Cyprinus carpio L. Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, 14:87–94.
Al Hilphy, AR, Al Shatty, SM, Al Mtury AAA & Gavahian, M 2020, Infrared-assisted oil extraction for valorization of carp viscera: Effects of process parameters, mathematical modelling, and process optimization. LWT, 129: 109541, https//c
Al Noor, JM, Al Dubakel, AY & Al Shatty, SMH 2013, Functional properties of gelatin extracted from fish wastes. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 26. https//doi:10.33762/bagrs.2013.111665.
AOAC 2003, Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 17th Ed., Washington, DC, 2200 p.
Archer, M 2001, Fish waste production in the United Kingdom: The quantities produced and opportunities for better utilization. Sea Fish Industry Authority, ‏ SR537.
Caruso, H 2016, Fishery waste and by-products: A resource to be valorised. Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 10: 12-15.
Dabrowski, K & Ciereszko, A 2001, Ascorbic acid and reproduction in fish: endocrine regulation and gamete quality. Aquaculture Research, 32: 623-638. https// 00598.x
Esteban, MB, Garcia, AJ, Ramos, P & Márquez, MC 2007, Evaluation of fruit–vegetable and fish wastes as alternative feedstuffs in pig diets. Waste Management, 27: 193-200, https// j. wasman.2006.01.004
Ghaly, AE, Ramakrishnan, VV, Brooks, MS, Budge, SM & Dave, D 2013, Fish processing wastes as a potential source of proteins. amino acids and oils: a critical review. Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology, 5: 107-29, https//doi: 10.4172/1948-5948.1000110
Ghaly, AE, Ramakrishnan, VV, Brooks, MS, Budge, SM & Dave, D 2013, Microbial & biochemical technology fish processing wastes as a potential source of proteins. Amino acids and oils: A critical review. Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology. 54172: 107-29.
Hameed Albassam, N, Al Doori, MM & Shamkhi, IA 2021, Adding some of organic acids into feed common carp fish Cyprinus carpio L and affecting of feeding on coefficient of digestion and rates of growth. Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Agriculture Sciences, 11:12–16. https//doi: 10.33794/qjas.2021.130856.1006
Hepher, B 1988, Nutrition of pond fishes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 388 p.
Jobling, M 1993, Bioenergetics: Feed intake and energy partitioning. In: JF, Rankin, & FB Jensen (Eds.), Fish ecophysiology. Chapman and Hall, Great Britain. pp. 1-44.
Matrodzadeh, M, Abdi, R, Basir, Z, Peyghan, R 2021. Histomorphology of esophagus and intestine of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during the replacement of fish meal with blood powder in the diet. Aquatic Animals Nutrition, 7: 73-84 (In Persian).
Mohammad, AA & Al Serajy, AY 2013, Studies on some functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L) viscera protein concentrate by using papain. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 26: 100-109.
Murray, J & Burt, JR 2001, The Composition of fish (Torry Advisory Note No. 38). Aberdeen, UK: Torry Research Station.
Muttharasi, C, Muralisankar, T, Uthayakumar, V, Gayathri, V, Thangal, SH & Anandhan, K 2019, Utilization of marine fisheries wastes for the production of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 51: 2305–2313, https//
Najim, SM 2012, Evaluation of fish waste meal as a dietary ingredient for hybrid red tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus × O. niloticus fingerlings. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 25: 18-26.
Najim, SM, Al Noor, JM & Al Waely, WA 2015, Extraction of crude peptone from fish wastes for use as a nitrogen source in microbiological media. Global Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Researches, 2: 29-37.
New, MB 1987, Feed and feeding of fish and shrimp. A manual on the preparation and presentation of compound feeds for shrimp and fish in aquaculture. FAO, ADCP/REP/87/26, 275 p.
Pour, F, Zanguee N, Mohammadiazarm, H 2023, Effects of different levels of galactooligosaccharide on growth, biochemical body composition, and blood indices in juvenile common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Aquatic Animals Nutrition, 8: 19-30 (In Persian).
Salih, AW, Najim, SM & Al Noor, JM 2021, Some physical, chemical and sensory properties of fish oil extracted from fish wastes by physical and chemical methods. Biological and Applied Environmental Research, 5: 152-62, https//
Shanthi, G, Premalatha, M & Anantharaman, N 2021, Potential utilization of fish waste for the sustainable production of microalgae rich in renewable protein and phycocyanin-arthrospira platensis/spirulina. Journal of Cleaner Production, 294: 126106, https//
Sørensen, M 2012, A review of the effects of ingredient composition and processing conditions on the physical qualities of extruded high‐energy fish feed as measured by prevailing methods. Aquaculture Nutrition, 18: 233-48, https// x.