Effects of dietary magnesium supplementation on the growth performance, body composition, and immune indices of juvenile Persian sturgeon, Acipnser persicus

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Aquaculture, Guilan Sciences and Researches Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Department of Aquaculture, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran

3 Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), International Sturgeon Research Institute, Rasht, Iran



The present experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary magnesium on growth performance, proximate composition, and immune response of juvenile Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus. Fish were fed with six different rations including T1: 32, T2: 185, T3: 380, T4: 592, T5: 790, and T6: 935 mg kg-1 Mg in diet for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, samples were collected for estimating the proximate composition and immunological parameters. Results of the present study showed that dietary Mg level significantly influences on growth performance and proximate body composition. Body weight, BWI, and DG were increased by up to 592 mg kg-1 dietary Mg, while decreased by its higher levels. The significant increase in lysozyme activity (by 790 mg kg-1 of dietary Mg) and immunoglobulin (by 935 mg kg-1) were observed in fish fed with different levels of magnesium supplementation compared to control group, which may be due to immune enhancement. The dietary Mg level of 592 mg kg-1 was suitable for Persian sturgeon based on the growth performance.


Badan-Ara Marzdashti, R, Aghamaali, MR, Varasteh, A, Nowruzfashkhami, MR, Sabkara,  F 2018, Purification and characterization of lysozyme in Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897) from the Southwest Caspian Sea.  Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 16: 359-367
Baeverfjord, G & Krogdahl, A 1996. Development and regression of soybean meal induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., distal intestine: a comparison with the intestines of fasted fish. Journal of Fish Diseases, 19: 375-387.
Barimani, S, Hedayatifard, M, Motamedzadegan, A, Bozorgnia, A 2021, Sturgeon caviar and cardiovascular diseases, Caspian Sea wild and farmed beluga, Huso huso caviar and their lipid quality indices. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 401-413.
Bijvelds, MJC, Flik, G & Bonga, SEW 1997. Mineral balance in Oreochromis mossambicus: dependence on magnesium in diet and water. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 16: 323-331.
Bijvelds, MJC, Van der Velden, JA, Kolar & ZI, Flik, G 1998. Magnesium transport in freshwater teleosts. Journal of Experimental Biology, 201: 1981-1990.
Billard, R & Lecointre, G 2001. Biology and conservation of sturgeon and paddlefish. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 10: 355-392.
Chandra, RK 1996. Nutrition, immunity and infection: from basic knowledge of dietary manipulation of immune responses to practical application of ameliorating suffering and improving survival. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 93: 14304-14307.
Dabrowska, H, Meyer-Burgdorff, K & Gnther, KD 1989. Interaction between dietary protein and magnesium level in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture, 76: 277-291.
Davis, DA & Gatlin, DM 1996. Dietary mineral requirements of fish and marine crustaceans. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 4: 75-99.
Ellis, AE 1990. Lysozyme assays. In: JS, Stolen, TC, Fletcher DP, Anderson, SL, Kaattari & AF, Rowley (Eds.), Techniques in fish immunology, Poland, SOS Publications, pp. 101-103.
Fathollahi, R, Khara, H, Pajand, Z, Shenavar, A 2021 Effects of sodium chloride and methylthioninium chloride on Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897): A histopathological and bacteriological study. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 75-83.
Gatlin, DM, Robinson, EH, Poe, WE & Wilson, RP 1982. Magnesium requirement of fingerling channel catfish and signs of magnesium deficiency. The Journal of Nutrition, 2: 112-118.
Han, D, Liu, H, Liu, M, Xiao. X, Zhu, X, Yang, Y & Xie, S 2012. Effect of dietary magnesium supplementation on the growth performance of juvenile gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. Aquaculture Nutrition, 18:512-520.
 Huang, F,  Li, J, Wang, L, Song & K, Mai, KS 2016. Interactive effects of dietary magnesium and vitamin E on growth performance, body composition, blood parameters and antioxidant status in Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) fed oxidized oil. Aquaculture Nutrition, 22: 708-722.
Houston, AH 1985. Erythrocyte magnesium in freshwater fishes. Magnesium, 4: 106-128.
Jahan, I, Reddy, AK, Arun Sudhagar, S, Harikrishna, V, Singh, Sh, Varghese, T, Srivastava, PP 2018.  The Effect of Fortification of Potassium and Magnesium in the Diet and Culture Water on Growth, Survival and Osmoregulation of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei Reared in Inland Ground Saline Water.  Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 18: 1235-1243.
Kandeep, C 2013. Dietary Magnesium Requirement of Cyprinus carpio VAR. Communis. Indian Journal of Natural Sciences, 3: 1236-1276.
Karppanen, H 1993. Epidemiological aspects of magnesium in human health and diseases. In: Ronneberg R, Fallen H (Eds.) Magnesium in prophylaxis and therapy Nycomed Pharma AS, Oslo, Norway, pp. 6-12.
Knox, D, Cowey, CB & Adron, JW 1981. Studies on the nutrition of salmonid fish. The magnesium requirement of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). British Journal Nutrition, 45: 137–148.
Lall, SP 2002.Theminerals. In: JE, Halver & RW, Hardy (Eds.) Fish Nutrition, 3rd Edition, Academic Press Inc., San Diego, CA, pp. 259-308.
Liang, J, Tian, LX, Liu, Y, Yang, H & Liang, G 2012. Dietary magnesium requirement and effects on growth and tissue magnesium content of juvenile grass carp. Aquaculture Nutrition, 18: 56-64.
Lim, C & Klesius, PH 2003. Influence of dietary levels of magnesium on growth, tissue mineral content, and resistance of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 34: 18-28.
Madadi, Z & Khara, H 2016, Spermatological parameters of wild and cultured beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758) and their effects on fertilization rate, hatching rate, larval growth and survival rates. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 14: 273-279.
Mohseni, MR, Ozorio, OA, Pourkazemi, M & Bai, SC 2008. Effects of dietary L-carnitine supplements on growth and body in beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 24:646–649.
Moyner, K, Roed, KH, Sevatdal. S & Heum, M 1993. Changes in nonspecific immune parameters in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., induced by Aeromonas salmonicida infection. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 3:253–265.
Ogino, C & Chiou, JY 1976. Mineral requirements in fish – II. Magnesium requirement of carp. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 42: 71-75.
Ogino, C, Takashima & F, Chiou, JY 1978. Requirement of rainbow trout for dietary magnesium. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 44: 1105-1108.
Panigrahi, A, Kiron, V, Kobayashi, T, Puangkaew, J, Satoh, S & Sugita, H 2004. Immune responses in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss induced by a potential probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus JCM 1136. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 102: 379–388.
Pedersen, HE 1989. Allergenicity of soy proteins. In: Applewhite TH (Ed) World Congress on Vegetable Protein Utilization in Human Foods and Animal Feed status, American Oil Chemists Society, Champaign, IL pp. 204–212.
Rankin, JC & Davenport, J 1981, Animal osmoregulation. London, Blackie. 99 p.
Reigh, R, Robinson, E & Brown, PB 1991, Effects of Dietary Magnesium on Growth and Tissue Magnesium Content of Blue Tilapia Oreochromis aureus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 22: 192-200.
Roy, LA, Davisi, DA & Nguyen, TN 2009, Supplementation of Chelated Magnesium to Diets of the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in Low-salinity Waters of West Alabama. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 40: 248-254.
Rumsey, GL, Siwicki, AK, Anderson, DP & Bowser, PR 1994. Effect of soybean protein on serological response, non-specific defense mechanisms, growth, and protein utilization in rainbow trout. Veterinary Immunology and Immuno, 41: 323-339.
Saurabh, S & Sahoo, PK 2008. Lysozyme: an important defence molecule of fish innate immune system. Aquaculture Research, 39: 223-239.
Scrimshaw, NS & SanGiovanni, JP 1997. Synergism of nutrition, infection, and immunity: an overview. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66: 464S–477S.
Shearer, KD & Asgard, T 1992. The effect of water-borne magnesium on the dietary magnesium requirement of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 9: 387–392.
Shearer, KD 1989. Whole body magnesium concentration as an indicator of magnesium status in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Aquaculture, 77: 201–210.
Shim, KF & Ng, SH 1988. Magnesium requirement of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters). Aquaculture, 73: 131-141.
Shirangi, A, Kalbassi, MR, Khodabandeh, S, Lignot, JH 2019, Effects of cortisol treatment on the salinity tolerance of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus Juveniles. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 17: 131-142
Siwicki, AK & Studnicka, M 1987. The phagocytic activity of neutrophils and serum lysozyme activity in experimentally infected carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Journal of Fish Biology, 31: 57-60.
Steffens, W 1989. Principles of Fish Nutrition. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UK, pp 384.
Tam, M, Gomez, S, Gonzalez-Gross, M & Marcos, A 2003. Possible roles of magnesium on the immune system. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57: 1193-1197.
Van der Velden, JA, Spanings, FAT, Flik, G, Zegers, C, Kolar, ZI & Wendelaar Bonga, SE 1991a. Growth rate and tissue magnesium concentration in adult freshwater tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), fed diets differing in magnesium content. Journal of Fish Biology, 39:83-91.
Vormann, J 2003. Magnesium: nutrition and metabolism. Mol Aspects Med, 24:27-37.
Watts, M, Munday, BL & Burke, CM 2001. cDNA sequences and organization of IgM heavy hain genes in two teleostean fish. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 19:153-164.
Williot, PL, Sabeau, J, Gessner, G, Arlati, P, Bronzi & T, Gulyas Berni, P 2001. Sturgeon farming in Western Europe: recent developments and perspectives. Aquatic Living Resources, 14: 367-374.
Yarmohammadi, M, Shabani, A, Pourkazemi, M, Soltanloo, H, Imanpour, MR, Ramezanpour, S, Smith-Keune & C, Jerry, DR 2013. Effects of starvation and re-feeding on compensatory growth performance, plasma metabolites and IGF-I gene expression of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus, Borodin 1897). Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 12: 456-483.
Yoon, TH, Lee1, DH, Won, SG, Ra, CS & Kim, JD 2014. Effects of dietary supplementation of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MgHPO4) as an alternative phosphorus source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus). Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 1976-5517.
Zar, JH 2010, Biostatistical Analysis. Northern Illinois University, 5th Edition, 944 p.