Removal of Cu (II) from industrial wastewaters through locally-produced adsorbent prepared from orange peel

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Environmental Engineering, Collage of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad ,Iraq



Heavy metal ion contamination is a commonality in industries such as mining, electroplating, and metal processing. By increased discharge of copper contaminated water, toxic waste due to Cu (II) has become a severe ecological dilemma globally. Adsorption is considered one of the more practicable techniques suggested for heavy metal removal because of its sensitivity, ease of operation and reproducibility alongside economic benefits such as effectiveness. This study examined the adsorption characteristics of an adsorbent prepared from orange peel (OP) for copper (II) in solutions that were aqueous. In evaluating the useful benefit of the sorbent material, changes in solution pH, initial Cu (II) concentration, adsorbent dose, and contact time on the adsorption process were also examined. Additionally, adsorption equilibrium isotherm as well as adsorption kinetics were explored to understand adsorption processes.


Abdouni, AE, Bouhout, S, Merimi, I, Hammouti, B, Haboubi, K 2021, Physicochemical characterization of wastewater from the Al-Hoceima slaughterhouse in Morocco. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 423-429.
Abia, AA, Horsfall Jr, M & Didi, O 2003, The use of chemically modified and unmodified cassava waste for the removal of Cd, Cu and Zn ions from aqueous solution. Bioresource Technology, 90: 345-348.
Abu‐Ilaiwi, FA, Ahmad, MB, Ibrahim, NA, Ab Rahman, MZ, Dahlan, KZM & Zin Wan Yunus, WM 2004, Optimized conditions for the grafting reaction of poly (methyl acrylate) onto rubberwood fiber. Polymer International, 53: 386-391.
Al Jaaf, HJM, Al-Ubaidy, MIB & Al-Sharify, ZT 2020, Removal of Cd (ll) from polluted water by filtration using iron oxide coated sand media. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 870 (1), art. no. 012077.
Aljeboree, AM 2021, Textile dyes as a major problem for the environment: Comparative removal of the highly toxic textile dyes from aqueous solution. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 267-275.
Almhana, NM, Ali, SA, Al-Najjar, SZ & Al-Sharify, ZT 2020, Assessment of cobalt ions removal in synthetic wastewater using broad bean peels. Journal of Green Engineering, 10: 10157-10173.
Al-Qaisi, MQ, Lahieb Faisal, MA, Al-Sharify, ZT & Al-Sharify, TA 2018, Possibility of utilizing from lemon peel as a sorbent in removing of contaminant such as copper ions from simulated aqueous solution. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9: 571-579.
Al-Sharify, ZT, Faisal, LMA, Al-Sharif, TA, Al-Sharify, NT & Faisal, FMA 2018, Removal of analgesic paracetamol from wastewater using dried olive stone. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 9: 293-299.
Amer MJ Alshamri, AM, Aljeboree, AB, Alqaragully, MF, Alkaim, A 2021, Removal of toxic textile dyes from aqueous solution through adsorption onto coconut husk waste: Thermodynamic and isotherm studies. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 513-522.
Amarasinghe, BMWPK & Williams, RA 2007, Tea waste as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Cu and Pb from wastewater. Chemical Engineering Journal, 132: 299-309.
Anwar, J, Shafique, U, Waheed-uz-Zaman, Salman, M, Dar, A & Anwar, S 2010, Removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from water by adsorption on peels of banana. Bioresource Technology, 101: 1752-1755.
Ayawei, N, Ekubo, AT, Wankasi, D & Dikio, ED 2015, Adsorption of congo red by Ni/Al-CO3: Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 31: 1307.
Biswas, BK, Inoue, K, Ghimire, KN, Ohta, S, Harada, H, Ohto, K & Kawakita, H 2007, The adsorption of phosphate from an aquatic environment using metal-loaded orange waste. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 312: 214-223.
Dąbrowski, A 2001, Adsorption-from theory to practice. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 93: 135-224.
Deans, JR & Dixon, BG 1992, Uptake of Pb2+ and Cu2+ by novel biopolymers. Water Research, 26: 469-472.
Deepashree, C, Komal Kumar, J, Devi Prasad, A & Zarei, M 2012, FTIR spectroscopic studies on cleome gynandra - Comparative analysis of functional group before and after extraction. Romanian Journal of Biophysics, 22: 137-143.
Elmorsi, TM 2011, Equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies of removal of methylene blue dye by adsorption onto miswak leaves as a natural adsorbent. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2: 817.
Feng, N, Guo, X & Liang, S 2009, Adsorption study of copper (II) by chemically modified orange peel. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164: 1286-1292.
Fost, SD & Aly, MO 1981, Adsorption Processes for Water Treatment. Betterworth Publications, Stoneharm, Massachusetts, Mass, USA.
Gallouze, H, Akretche, DE, Daniel, C, Coelhoso, I & Crespo, JG 2021, Removal of synthetic estrogen from water by adsorption on modified bentonites. Environmental Engineering Science, 38: 4-14.
Gadhban, MY, RiadhAbdulmajed, Y, Ali, FD, Al-Sharify, ZT 2020, Preparation of nano zeolite and its application in water treatment. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 870 (1), art. no. 012054.
Hamzezadeh, A, Rashtbari, Y, Afshin, S, Morovati, M & Vosoughi, M 2020, Application of low-cost material for adsorption of dye from aqueous solution. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 00(00), 1-16.
Hutchison, A, Atwood, D & Santilliann-Jiminez, QE 2008, The removal of mercury from water by open chain ligands containing multiple sulfurs. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 156: 458-465.
Khormaei, M, Nasernejad, B, Edrisi, M & Eslamzadeh, T 2007, Copper biosorption from aqueous solutions by sour orange residue. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 149: 269-274.
Kuśmierek, K & ͆wia¸tkowski, A 2015, The influence of different agitation techniques on the adsorption kinetics of 4-chlorophenol on granular activated carbon. Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis, 116: 261-271.
Lahieb Faisal, M, Al-Najjar, SZ & Al-Sharify, ZT 2020, Modified orange peel as sorbent in removing of heavy metals from aqueous solution. Journal of Green Engineering, 10: 10600-10615.
Lahieb Faisal, M, Al-Sharify, ZT & Farah Faisal, M 2020, Role of rice husk as natural sorbent in paracetamol sorption equilibrium and kinetics. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 870 (1), art. no. 012053. https://doi.10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012053.
Lin, J & Wang, L 2009, Comparison between linear and non-linear forms of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic models for the removal of methylene blue by activated carbon. Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering in China, 3: 320-324.
Misran, E, Bani, O, Situmeang, EM & Purba, AS 2021, Banana stem based activated carbon as a low-cost adsorbent for methylene blue removal: Isotherm, kinetics, and reusability. Alexandria Engineering Journal.
Mohammadi, M, Fataei, E 2019, Comparative life cycle assessment of municipal wastewater treatment systems: lagoon and activated sludge. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 17: 327-336.
Mohammed, SJ, M-Ridha, MJ, Abed, KM & Elgharbawy, AAM 2021, Removal of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin from aqueous solutions and an economic evaluation using the electrocoagulation process‏. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, pp. 1-19.
Nakajima, A & Sakaguchi, T 1990, Recovery and removal of uranium by using plant wastes. Biomass, 21: 55-63.
Olasehinde, EF, Abegunde, SM, Adebayo, MA 2020, Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies of methylene blue dye removal using Raphia taedigera seed activated carbon. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 18: 329-344.
Razak, ZA, Rushdi, S, Gadhban, MY, Al-Najjar, SZ & Al-Sharify, ZT 2020, Possibility of utilizing the lemon peels in removing of red reactive (RR) dye from simulated aqueous solution. Journal of Green Engineering, 10: 7343-7359. 
Reddy, BR, Mirghaffari, N & Gaballah, I 1997, Removal and recycling of copper from aqueous solutions using treated Indian barks. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 21: 227-245.
Ruthven, DM 1984, Principles of adsorption and adsorption processes. John Wiley & Sons.
Rushdi, S, Hameed, KK, Janna, H & Al-Sharify, ZT 2020, Investigation on production of sustainable activated carbon from walnuts shell to be used in protection from COVID-19 disease. Journal of Green Engineering, 10: 7517-7526.
Rzaij, DR, Al-Jaaf, HJ, Al-Najjar, SZ, Al-Sharify, ZT, Al-Moameri, HH & Mohammed, NA 2020, Studying the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate of Tigris River water in Baghdad and their suitability to the conditions permitted internationally. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 870 (1), art. no. 012025. https://doi.10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012025.
Skinner, K, Wright, N & Porter-Goff, E 2007, Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants. Environmental Pollution, 145: 234-237.
Snyder, SA, Westerhoff, P, Yoon, Y & Sedlak, DL 2003, Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors in water: implications for the water industry. Environmental Engineering Science, 20: 449-469.
Urgun-Demirtas, M, Benda, PL, Gillenwater, PS, Negri, MC, Xiong, H & Snyder, SW 2012, Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 215: 98-107.
Zaccheo, P, Ricca, G & Crippa, L 2002, Organic matter characterization of composts from different feedstocks. Compost Science & Utilization, 10: 29-38.