Department of Environmental Engineering,
Hangzhou, 310029, China;
FG Post Graduate College sector H-8,
College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China.
Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310029
Department of Agronomy, NWFP Agriculture University Peshawar
Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread and toxic heavy metal in several part of the world. Its toxicity in soil is becoming a severe threat to living organism worldwide. It is one of the main pollutants in paddy fields near industrial areas and highly toxic to plant growth and development of the plants. Cd can be easily taken up by plants and enter the food chain. Therefore, precautionary measurements should be done to reduce accumulation of Cd in crops to alleviate the risk of health hazards in response to Cd-polluted soils. Several strategies have been proposed for the successful management of the Cd-contaminated in crops. One approach, applicable on slightly contaminated soils, is selection of plant genotypes with high ability to repress root uptake and shoot transport of Cd which could be a reasonable approach to alleviate adverse effects of Cd toxicity in crops. Moreover, the toxic effect of Cd can be decreased by proper application of essential nutrients such as Zn, S and N fertilizers Cd contaminated soil.
Ajakaiye, C. O. (1981) Influence of soil applications of nitrogen on nitrate reductase activity, leaf and protein content in sorghum. Plant Soil. 60, 423- 434.
Alloway, B. J. (1995) Heavy Metals in Soils, 2nd ed. Blackie Academic & Professional Publishers, London. 368 p.
Angelova, I. and Atanassov, V. I. (1993) Deposition of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu in the soil of the smelter’s area near Plovdiv. Sci. Works Higher Inst. Agri. 38, 99-102 (BG).
Aravind, P., Prasad, M. N. V. (2003) Zinc alleviates cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Ceratophyllum demersum L: a free-floating freshwater macrophyte. Plant Physiol and Biochem. 41, 391- 397
Bettger, W. J. and O’Dell, B. L. (1981) A critical physiological role of zinc in the structure and function of biomembrances, Life Sci. 28, 1425- 287.
Bingham, T., Page, A. L. and Strong, J. E. (1980) Yield and cadmium content of rice grain in relation to addition rates of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc with sewage sludge and liming. Soil Sci. 130, 32-38.
Bungard, R. A., McNeil, D. and Morton, J. D. (1997) Effects of nitrogen on the photosynthetic apparatus of Clematis vitalba grown at several irradiances. Australian J. of Plant Physiol. 24, 205- 214.
Cataldo, C. A., Garland, T. R. and Wildung, R. E. (1983) Cadmium uptake kinetics in intact soybean plants. Plant Physiol. 73, 844- 848.
Chaoui, A., Ghorbal, M. H. and El-Ferjani, .E. (1997) Effect of cadmium-zinc on hydrogenically grown bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plant Sci. 126, 21- 28.
Chen, Y. and Huerta, A. J. (1997) Effects of sulfur nutrition on photosynthesis in cadmium-treated barley seedlings. J. Plant Nutr. 20, 845-856.
Choudhary, M., Bailey, L. D., Grant, C. A. and Leisle, D. (1995) Effect of Zn on the concentration of Cd and Zn in plant tissue of two Durum wheat lines. Can. J. Plant Sci. 75, 445– 448.
Cobbett, C. S. (2000) Phytochelatins and their roles in heavy metal detoxification. Plant Physiol. 123, 825- 832.
De Vos, C. H. R., and Schat, H. (1981) Free radicals and heavy metal tolerance. In Rozema J and Verkleij J (eds.) Ecological responses to environmental stress. AC Kluwar Publishers, The Netherlands. pp. 22- 30. Ed. J. Nriagu, Wiley and Sons, New York, 639– 653.
Dunbar, K. R., McLaughlin, M. J. and Reid, R. J. (2003) The uptake and partitioning of cadmium in two cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). J. Exp. Bot. 54, 349- 354.
Evans, J. R. and Terashima, I. (1987) Effects of nitrogen nutrition on electron transport components and photosynthesis in 6 Cadmium toxicity on rice genotypes spinach. Australian J. of Plant Physiolo. 14, 59- 68.
Fergusson, J. E. (1991) The Heavy Elements: Chemistry, Environmental Impact and Health Effects. Pergamon Press, OxfordNew York-Tokyo- Seoul. 329– 406.
Frechilla, S., Bonzalez, E. M., Royuela, M., Arrese- Igor, C., Lamsfus, C and AparicioTejo, P.M., (1999) Source of nitrogen nutrition affects pea growth involving changes in stomatal conductance and photorespiration. J. Plant Nutr. 22, 911- 926.
Grant, C., Buckley, W., Bailey, L. and Selles, F. (1998) Cadmium accumulation in crops. Can. J. Plant Scienc., 78, 1- 17.
Grill, E., Winnacker, E. L. and Zenk, M. H. (1985) Phytochelatins: The principal heavy metal complexing peptides of higher plants. Science 230, 674- 676
Hall, J. L. (2002) Cellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification and tolerance. J. Experimental Botany, 53, 1- 11.
Harris, N. and Taylor, G. J. (2001) Remobilization of cadmium in maturing shoots of near isogenic lines of durum wheat that differ in grain cadmium accumulation. J. Exp. Bot. 52, 1473-1481
Hassan, M. J., Shao, G. and Zhang, G. (2005a) Influence of cadmium toxicity on antioxidant enzymes activity in rice cultivars with different grain Cd accumulation. J. Plant Nutr. 28, 1259- 1270
Hassan, M. J., Zhang, G., Wu, F, Wei, K., and Chonghua, C. (2005b) Zinc alleviates growth inhibition and oxidative stress caused by Cadmium toxicity in rice. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 168, 256- 261
Hassan, M. J., Wang, Z. and Zhang, G. (2005c) Sulfur alleviates growth inhibition and oxidative stress caused by cadmium toxicity in rice. J. Plant Nutr. 28, 1785-1780
Hassan, M. J., Wang, F., Ali, S. and Zhang, G. (2005d) Toxic effect of cadmium on rice as affected by nitrogen fertilizer form. Plant and Soil, 277, 359- 365
Herandez, L.E., Garate, A. and Caroeba-Ruiz. R. (1997) Effect of cadmium on the uptake, distribution and assimilation of nitrate in Pisum sativum. Plant and Soil. 189, 97-106.
Howden, R., Goldsbrough, P.B., Andersen, C.R. and Cobbet, C.S. (1995) Cadmiumsensitive, Cd1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana are phytochelatin deficient. Plant Physiol. 107, 1059- 1066.
Hu, Y.T. and Kao, C.H. (2003) Changes in protein and amino acid contents in two cultivars of rice seedlings with different apparent tolerance to cadmium. Plant Growth Regulation. 40, 147- 155.
Jarup, L., Berglund, M., Elinder, C.G., Nordberg, G. and Vahter, M. (1998) Health effects of cadmium exposure-a review of the literature and a risk estimate. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 24, 1- 51.
Joel, G., Gamon, J. A. and Field, C.B. (1997) Production efficiency in sunflower the role of water and nitrogen stress. Remote Sensing of the Environment. 62, 176- 188.
Kabata-Pendias, A. and Pendias, H. (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants. Boca Raton, USA, CRC Press. Third edition.
Kastori, R., PetrovicÂ M. and PetrovicÂ N. (1992) Effects of excess lead, cadmium, copper and zinc on water relations in sunflower. J. Plant Nutr. 15, 2427- 2439.
Khater, A., Abou-Seed M., Soliman, S. and Salem, N. (1991) Growth, nodule formation, chlorophyll content and the uptake of some nutrients by broad bean plants as affected by cadmium application. Agrochim. 35, 434- 440.
Kim, T., Harry, A. M. and Hazel, Y. W. (2002) Studies on the effect of zinc supply on growth and nutrient uptake in pecan. J. Plant.Nutr. 25, 1987- 2000
Kochian, L. V., Pence, N. S., Letham, D. L. D., Pineros, M. A., Magalhaes, J. V., Hoekenga, O. A. Garvin, D. F. (2002) Mechanisms of metal resistance in plants: aluminum and heavy metals. Plant Soil, 247, 109-119.
Larson, W. J. (1988) The antioxidants of higher plants, Phytochemistry. 27, 969- 768.
Leustek, T., Martin, M. N., Bick, J. N. and Davies, J. P., (2000) Pathways and regulation of sulfur metabolism revealed through molecular and genetic studies. Annu Rev Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 51, 141- 165.
Li, Y. M., Channey, L. R. and Schneiter, A. A. (1995) Genotypic variation in kernel cadmium concentration in sunflower germplasm under varying soil conditions. Crop Sci. 35, 137- 141.
Liu, J. G., Liang, J. S., Li, K. Q., Zhang, Z. J., Yu B. Y., Lu X. L. and YangZhu, Q. S. (2003) Correlations between cadmium and mineral nutrients in absorption and accumulation in various genotypes of rice Hassan et al., 7 under cadmium stress. Chemosphere. 52, 1467- 1473.
Liu, M. C, Li, H. F., Xia, L. J. and Yang, L.S. (2001) Effect of Fe, Mn coating formed on roots on Cd uptake by rice varieties. Acta Ecologica Sinica. 21, 598- 602.
Maclean, A. J. (1976) Cadmium in different plant species and its availability in soils as influenced by organic matter and additions of lime, P, Cd and Zn. Can. J. Soil Sci. 56, 129- 138.
Majerowicz, N. and Kerbauy, J. (2002) Effect of nitrogen form on dry matter partitioning and nitrogen metabolism in two contrasting genotype of Catasetum fimbriatum (orchidaceae). Environ. Exp. Bot. 47, 249- 258.
Makino, A., Sakashita, H., Hidema, J., Mae, T., Ojima, K. and Osmond, B. (1992) Distinctive responses of ribulose-1, 5- bisphosphate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase in wheat leaves to nitrogen nutrition and their possible relationships to CO2 transfer resistance. Plant Physiol. 100, 1737 -1743.
Moraghan, J. T. (1993) Accumulation of cadmium and selected elements in flax seed grown on a calcareous soil. Plant and Soil. 150, 61- 68.
Nakashima, K., Kobayashi, E., Nogawa, K., Kido, T. and Honda, R. (1997) Concentration of cadmium in rice and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction. Occup. Environ. Med. 54, 750- 755.
Nordberg, G. F., Jin, T., Kong, Q., Ye, T., Cai, S., Wang, Z., Zhuang, F. and Wu, X. (1997) Biological monitoring of cadmium exposure and renal effects in a population group residing in a polluted area in China. Sci. Total Environ. 199, 111- 114.
Nussbaum, S., Schmutz, D. and Brunold, C. (1988) Regulation of assimilatory sulfate reduction by cadmium in Zea mays L. Plant Physiol. 88, 1407-1410.
Oliver, D. P., Wilhelm, N. S., McFarlane, J. D., Tiller, K. G. and Cozens, G. D. (1997) Effect of soil and foliar applications of zinc on cadmium concentration in wheat grain. Australian J. Expt. Agriculture 37, 677- 682.
Oliver, D. O., Hannam, R., Tiller, K. G., Wilhelm, N. S., Merry, R. H. and Cozens, G. D. (1994) The effects of zinc fertilization on cadmium concentration in wheat grain. J. Environ. Qual. 23, 705-711.
Oritz, D. F., Kreppel, L., Speiser D. M, Scheel, G, McDonald, G. and Ow, D. W., (1992) Heavy metal tolerance in the fission yeast requires an ATP-binding cassette-type vacuolar membrane transporter. EMBO J. 11, 3491- 3499.
Ozturk, L., Karanlik, S., Özkutlu, F., Çakmak, I. and Kochian L. V. (2003) Shoot biomass and zinc/cadmium uptake for hyper accumulator and non-accumulator Thlaspi species in response to growth on a zincdeficient calcareous soil. Plant Sci. 164, 1095- 1101.
Penner, G. A., Clarke, J., Bezte, L. J. and Leisle, D. (1995) Identification of RAPD markers linked to a gene governing cadmium uptake in durum wheat. Genome. 38, 543- 547.
Petrovic, N., Kastori, R. and Rajean, I. (1990). The effect of cadmium on nitrate reductase activity in sugar beet (Beeta vulgaris). Plant nutrition- Physiolo and Applications. Ed. M L van Beusichem. pp 107- 109. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Prasad, M.N.V. and Hagemeyer J. (Eds.) (1999) Heavy metal stress in plants from molecules to ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. Rüegsegger, A. and Brunold, C. (1992) Effect of cadmium on Y- glutamylcysteine synthesis in maize seedlings. Plant Physiol. 99, 428- 433.
Salt, D. E. and Rauser, W. E. (1995) MgATPdependent transport of phytochelatins across the tonoplast of oat roots. Plant Physiol. 107, 1293- 1301.
Sanità di Toppi, L. and Gabbrieli, R. (1999) Response to cadmium in higher plants, Environ. Exp. Bot. 41, 105- 130.
Scheller, H. V., Huang, B., Hatch, E. and Goldsbrough, P. B. (1987) Phytochelatin synthesis and glutathione levels in response to heavy metals in tomato cells. Plant Physiol. 85, 1031- 1035.
Siedlecka, A. and Krupa, Z. (1996) Interaction between cadmium and iron and its effects on photosynthetic capacity of primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 34, 833- 841.
Siedlecka, A. (1995) Some aspects of interactions between heavy metals and plant mineral nutrients. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae. 64, 265- 272.
Smilde, K. W., Luit B. V. and Driel, W. V. (1992) The extraction by soil and absorption by plants of applied zinc and cadmium. Plant and Soil. 143, 233- 238.
Smith, G. C. and Brennan, E. G. (1983) Cadmium–zinc interaction in tomato plants. Phytopathology 73, 879–882.
Stolt, J. P, Sneller, F. E. C., Bryngelsson, T., Lundborg T., Schat, H. (2003) Phytochelatin and cadmium accumulation in wheat. Environ. Exp. Bot. 49, 21- 28.
Vallee, B. L. and Auld. D.S. (1990) Zinc coordination, function and structure of zinc enzymes and other proteins, Biochemistry. 29, 5647- 5659.
Von-Caemmererm, S. and Farquharm, G .D. M. (1981) Some relationships between the biochemistry of photosynthesis and the gas exchange of leaves. Planta. 153, 376- 387
Wahbeh, M. I. (1984) Levels of zinc, manganese, magnesium, iron and cadmium in three species of seagrass from Aqaba (Jordan). Aquatic Botany 20, 179-183.
Wang, K. R. and Gong, H. Q. (1996) Compared study on the cadmium absorption and distribution of two genotypes rice. Agroenvironmental Protection 15, 145– 149.
Wang, K. R., 2002. Tolerance of cultivated plants to cadmium and their utilization in polluted farmland soils. Acta Biotechnol. 22, 189– 198.
Weigel, H. J. and Jager, H. J. (1980) Subcellular distribution and chemical form of cadmium in bean plants. Plant Physiol. 65, 480- 482
White, M. C., and Chaney, R. L. (1980.) Zinc, Cd and Mn uptake by soybean from two Zn and Cd-amended coastal plant soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 308- 313.
Wu, F. B., Zhang, G. P. and Peter, D. (2003) Four barley genotypes respond differently to cadmium: lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant capacity. Environ. Exp. Bot. 50, 67- 77.
Wu, Q. T., Chen, L. and Wang, G. S. (1999) Differences on Cd uptake and accumulation among rice cultivars and its mechanism. Acta Ecologica Sinica. 19, 104-107.
Zago, M. P. and Oteiza, P. I. (2001) The antioxidant properties of zinc: interactions with iron and antioxidants, Free Rad. Biol. Med. 31, 266- 274.
Zenk, M.H. (1996) Heavy metal detoxification in higher plants. A review. Gene. 179, 21-30