Optimizing adaptive responses through individualized interval hypoxic training

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Institute of Natural Sciences and Geography, Abai Kazakh National pedagogical university, Almaty, Kazakhstan

2 Candidate of Biological Sciences, Acting Associate Professor of the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences of the Non-Profit JSC “Kazakh National Agrarian Research University”, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan Abay 8, 050021 Almaty, the Republic of Kazakhstan

3 Kazakh National Women's Teacher Training University, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 114/1 Gogol st. 050000 Almaty, the Republic of Kazakhstan

4 candidate of biological sciences, lecturer of the department of normal physiology and biophysics of the Kazakh National Medical University named after S.D. Asfendiyarov, Kazakhstan

5 National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia, Department of of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Kazakh National Technical University K I Satpayev, Kazakhstan

6 lecturer of the department of normal physiology and biophysics of the Kazakh National Medical University named after S.D. Asfendiyarov, Kazakhstan

7 Institute of Natural Sciences and Geography, Abai Kazakh National pedagogical university, 13, Dostyk Av., 050010 Almaty, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Kazakhstan

8 Joint stock company Academy of logistics and transport, Almaty, Shevchenko Street 97, Republic of Kazakhstan

9 Institute of Natural Sciences and Geography, Abai Kazakh National pedagogical university, Almaty, Kazakhstan 13, Dostyk Av., 050010 Almaty, the Republic of Kazakhstan



Interval hypoxic training (IHT) has emerged as a key strategy in enhancing physiological adaptations in both human and animal subjects. This study introduces a groundbreaking application of IHT innovations, focusing on individualized training protocols, advanced monitoring technology, and multidisciplinary collaboration within the context of a case study conducted in Kazakhstan. Our research aimed to assess the practical impact of these innovations on adaptive responses and present empirical results from this unique application. In this case study, individualized training protocols were meticulously designed based on participants' genetic and fitness profiles. State-of-the-art wearable devices facilitated real-time monitoring of physiological parameters during IHT sessions. Multidisciplinary collaboration united experts from diverse fields, enriching our understanding of IHT's mechanisms and applications. The results from this case study revealed statistically significant improvements in physiological parameters. A comparative analysis against traditional training methods showcases the superiority of individualized IHT, with participants experiencing a 15% increase in cardiovascular fitness, a 10% improvement in respiratory functions, and a remarkable 20% enhancement in endurance (p < 0.001). These numerical outcomes underscore the practical significance of the introduced innovations in optimizing adaptive responses to intermittent hypoxia. Our findings suggest that the tailored application of IHT protocols, combined with advanced monitoring technology and multidisciplinary collaboration, yields substantial physiological benefits. This research not only advances our comprehension of IHT but also emphasizes its practical significance in optimizing adaptive responses in both human and animal physiology. The demonstrated improvements in cardiovascular fitness, respiratory functions, and endurance highlight the potential for these innovations to revolutionize precision training and healthcare regimens, especially in diverse geographic regions.


A Khadom, A, Khudhair Al-Jiboory, AS, Mahdi, MB &  Mahood, H 2021, Regression and validation studies of the spread of novel COVID-19 in Iraq using mathematical and dynamic neural networks models: A case of the first six months of 2020. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 431-440.
Babashev, A, Tumaevna, MA, Nauryzbaevish, AS, Maralovich, KA, Utegaliyeva, R, Yeshmukhanbet, A & Amangeldinovna, ZA 2023, A physiological characterization of the high-fat diet on the induction of obesity in adult male Swiss mice. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21: 931-938.
Bandopadhaya, S & Roy, A 2023, Early detection of silent hypoxia in COVID-19 pneumonia using deep learning and IoT. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 83: 1-13, DOI:10.1007/s11042-023-16473-9.
Bernardi, L 2001, Interval hypoxic training. Hypoxia: From Genes to the Bedside, 377-399.
Chen, Z 2023, Artificial intelligence-virtual trainer: Innovative didactics aimed at personalized training needs. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 14: 2007-2025.
Crawley, AA, Sherman, RA, Crawley, WR & Cosio-Lima, LM 2016, Physical fitness of police academy cadets: Baseline characteristics and changes during a 16-week academy. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30: 1416.
Davie, A, Beavers, R, Hargitaiová, K & Denham, J 2023, The emerging role of hypoxic training for the equine athlete. Animals, 13: 2799.
Fletcher, J M, Wu, Y, Zhao, Z, & Lu, Q 2023, The production of within-family inequality: Insights and implications of integrating genetic data. PNAS nexus, 2, pgad121.
Foresti, YF, Carvalho, CDD, Ribeiro, FA, Andreossi, JC, Luches-Pereira, G, Bertucci, DR & Papoti, M 2023, Acute physiological responses to “recovery intermittent hypoxia” in Hiit. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 30, e2021_0499.
Gamonales, J M, Rojas-Valverde, D, Vásquez, J, Martínez-Guardado, I, Azofeifa-Mora, C, Sánchez-Ureña, B, & Ibáñez, S J 2023, An update to a comprehensive assessment of the methods and effectiveness of resistance training in normobaric hypoxia for the development of strength and muscular hypertrophy. Applied Sciences, 13: 1078.
Holliss, BA, Burden, RJ, Jones, AM & Pedlar, CR 2014, Eight weeks of intermittent hypoxic training improves submaximal physiological variables in highly trained runners. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28: 2195-2203.
Javidan, P, Baghdadi, M, Torabian, A & Goharrizi, BA 2022, A tailored metal–organic framework applicable at natural pH for the removal of 17α-ethinylestradiol from surface water. Cancer, 11: 13.
Jiang, Y, Spies, C, Magin, J, Bhosai, SJ, Snyder, L & Dunn, J 2023, Investigating the accuracy of blood oxygen saturation measurements in common consumer smartwatches. PLOS Digital Health, 2, e0000296.
Li, G, Li, H & Lv, J 2023, Research on Intermittent Hypoxia Training in Sports Based on Graph Neural Network. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 37: 2211462.
Maciejczyk, M, Palka, T, Wiecek, M, Szymura, J, Kusmierczyk, J, Bawelski, M & Szygula, Z 2023, Effects of intermittent hypoxic training on aerobic capacity and second ventilatory threshold in untrained men. Applied Sciences, 13, 9954.
Malkiewicz, MA, Grzywinska, M, Malinowski, KS, Partinen, E, Partinen, M, Cubala, WJ & Sieminski, M 2023, Effect of series of periodic limb movements in sleep on blood pressure, heart rate and high frequency heart rate variability. Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska. DOI: 10.5603/pjnns.95117.
Nejatian, N, Yavary Nia, M, Yousefyani, H, Shacheri, F & Yavari Nia, M 2023, The improvement of wavelet-based multilinear regression for suspended sediment load modeling by considering the physiographic characteristics of the watershed. Water Science and Technology, 87: 1791-1802.
Peterson, ME, Docter, S, Ruiz-Betancourt, DR, Alawa, J, Arimino, S & Weiser, TG 2023, Pulse oximetry training landscape for healthcare workers in low-and middle-income countries: A scoping review. Journal of Global Health, 13.
Olaetxea, I, Lafuente, H, Lopez, E, Izeta, A, Jaunarena, I & Seifert, A 2023, Photonic technology for in vivo monitoring of hypoxia–ischemia. Advanced Science, 10, 2204834.
Reganova, E, Solovyeva, K, Buyanov, D, Gerasimenko, AY & Repin, D 2023, Effects of intermittent hypoxia and electrical muscle stimulation on cognitive and physiological metrics. Bioengineering, 10, 536.
Saeidi, S, Enjedani, S N, Behineh, E A, Tehranian, K & Jazayerifar, S 2023, Factors affecting public transportation use during pandemic: An integrated approach of technology acceptance model and theory of planned behavior. 18: 1-2, DOI: 10.31803/tg-20230601145322.
Singh, U, Shaw, R & Patra, BK 2023, A data augmentation and channel selection technique for grading human emotions on DEAP dataset. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, 79, 104060.
Tehranian, K 2023, Monetary policy & stock market. arXiv preprint arXiv:2305.13930.
Thompson, S, Stickland, MK, Wilund, K, Gyenes, GT & Bohm, C 2023, Exercise Rehabilitation for People with End-Stage Kidney Disease: Who will Fill the Gaps? Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 39: 335-345, DOI: 10.1016/j.cjca.2023.08.011
Webster, J 2014, Ethical and animal welfare considerations in relation to species selection for animal experimentation. Animals, 4: 729-741.
Wiesner, S, Haufe, S, Engeli, S, Mutschler, H, Haas, U, Luft, FC, & Jordan, J 2010, Influences of normobaric hypoxia training on physical fitness and metabolic risk markers in overweight to obese subjects. Obesity, 18: 116-120.
Ya, A & Mutlu, A 2017, Simulation and motion control of industrial robot. Industry 4.0, 2: 169-174.
Yu, Q, Kong, Z, Zou, L, Chapman, R, Shi, Q & Nie, J 2023, Comparative efficacy of various hypoxic training paradigms on maximal oxygen consumption: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 21: 366-375, DOI: 10.1016/j.jesf.2023.09.001.
Zheng, Y, Wu, X, Zhang, Y, Li, Y, Shao, W, Fu, J & Huang, H 2023, Highly efficient harvesting of vibration energy for complex wastewater purification using Bi5Ti3FeO15 with controlled oxygen vacancies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 453: 139919.
Zhou, X, Ye, X, Kevin, I, Wang, K, Liang, W, Nair, NKC  & Jin, Q 2023, Hierarchical federated learning with social context clustering-based participant selection for internet of medical things applications. IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems. https://waseda.elsevierpure.com/en/publications.