Cultivation of peas, Pisum sativum L. in organic farming

Document Type : Research Paper


Baitursynov Kostanay Regional University, Kostanay, Kazakhstan



Pea, Pisum sativum L. is a popular legume crop, the advantage of which is that nitrogen accumulates in the soil after its cultivation. It requires less nitrogen fertilizers, since nodule nitrogen-fixing bacteria are found on the roots of the crop. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of biological and chemical preparations on the yield and content of heavy metals in peas. The Aksaisky Usatyi 55 pea variety was selected, characterized by the drought and heat resistance. In total, two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 included sowing peas with the introduction of organic manure at a calculated dose of 10 ton ha-1. Biometric indicators of pea plants corresponding to the characteristics of the variety were recorded. On average the vegetation period took 94 days, and the height of the plants by the ripening phase was 50.9 cm. Boraginaceae, Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Plantaginaceae represented the weed families. According to the weed estimation scale, the weed infestation was slight or negligible. The yield of peas ranged from 12.5 to 17.0 c ha-1, the maximum yield was obtained in the variant using the Baikal EM-1 biological preparation (17.0 c ha-1), compared to the control variant (12.5 c ha-1). The pea quality ranged from 16.4 to 18.5%; the carbohydrate content from 67.7 to 69.5%; fiber from 3.8 to 4.9%; fat from 0.7 to 1.6%; and ash from 1.9 to 2.8%. The heavy metal content was within the maximum permissible concentration. The heavy metal content in peas ranged from 0.79 to 46.0 mg kg-1, in the control variant from 0.60 to 40.64 mg kg-1, with the use of chemicals from 1.20 to 46.0 mg kg-1, and with the use of biological preparations from 0.92 to 40.72 mg kg-1.


Aipeisova, S, Utarbayeva, N, Maui, A, Kazkeev E & Baubekova, A 2023, Fabaceae Lindl. species in the floristic composition of the aktobe floristic district. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 80: 1076-1087, DOI: 10.1080/00207233.2022.2136851.
Al- Abbasi, SHAH, Altaef, AQ, AL-Samarraie, M, Al-Naqib, ATH & Al-Majmaei, AAM 2022, Collection and diagnosis of some wild plants in the vicinity of Samarra University, Iraq. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 437-440.
Askegaard, M, Olesen, JE & Kristensen, K 2005, Nitrate leaching from organic arable crop rotations: Effects of location, manure and catch crop.  Soil Use and Management, 21: 181-188, DOI: 10.1079/SUM2005315
Bekezhanov, D, Kopbassarova, G, Rzabay, A, Nessipbayeva, I & Aktymbayev, K 2021, Еnvironmental and legal regulation of digitalization of environmental protection. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 12: 1941–1950
Bilsborrow, P, Cooper, J, Tétard Jones, C, Średnicka Tober, D, Barański, M, Eyre, M, Schmidt, C & Wilcockson, S 2013, The effect of organic and conventional management on the yield and quality of wheat grown in a long-term field trial. European Journal of Agronomy, 51: 71-80, DOI: 10.1016/j.eja. 2013.06.003
Brijbhooshan, Singh, VK & Shalini 2017, Response of fieldpea (Pisum sativum L. var arvense) to various planting methods, irrigation schedule, and weed management practices. Legume Research, 40: 132-137, DOI:10.18805/lr.v0iOF.7107
Commission Regulation of EC 2020, No 889/2008 of 5 September 2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 on organic production and labeling of organic products with regard to organic production, labeling and control. Current consolidated version: 07/01/2020 ELI [Electronic resource], 2020, URL: 889/oj (date of access: 30.07.2020).
 Doltra, J, Lægdsmand, M & Olesen, JE 2011, Cereal yield and quality as affected by nitrogen availability in organic and conventional arable crop rotations: A combined modeling and experimental approach. European Journal of Agronomy, 34: 83-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.eja.2010.11.002
Grigoruk, VV & Klimov, EV 2020, Organicheskoe selskoe khozyaistvo: kontseptualnaya pozitsiya (Organic agriculture: A conceptual position). Problemy Agrorynka, 3: 88-101.
IFOAM 2020, Definition of Organic agriculture. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements, [Electronic resource], 2008, URL: (date of access: 22.07.2020).
Ingver, A, Tamm, Ü, Tamm, I, Tamm, S, Tupits, I, Bender, A & Koppel, M 2019, Leguminous pre-crops improved quality of organic winter and spring cereals. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 35: 46-60. DOI:10.1080/01448765.2018.1509728.
Kantarbayeva, EE, Shayakhmetova AS, Koshen BM & Zholamanov KK 2017, The density of planting and the productivity of corn in the context of forest-steppe zone of northern Kazakhstan. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences, 19: 116-120.
Kiselev, AS, Popolzuhina, NA, Popolzuhin, PV, Parshutkin, YY & Gaydar, AA 2018, The effect of inoculation on the formation of photosynthetic and symbiotic apparatus of sowing peas and its productivity in the conditions of the southern forest-steppe of Western Siberia. Bulletin of the Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, 3: 23-30
Kosev, V & Naydenova, Y 2015, Heritability of qualitative traits in forage pea (Pisum Sativum L.). OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences, 15: 274-281.
Kuldybayev, N, Dutbayev, Y, Lozowicka, B, Iwaniuk, P, Slyamova, A & Tsygankov, V 2021, Effects of root rot in soybean cultivars with diverse susceptibility to the disease on plant physiology, yield, amino acids, and mycotoxins profile in climatic conditions of kazakhstan. OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences, 21: 312-321.
Nassif, WG, Lagenean, FHS & Al-Taai, OT 2023, Impact of vegetation cover on climate change in different regions of Iraq. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21: 333-342.
Nugmanov, AB, Tokusheva, AS, Ansabayeva, AS, Baidalin, ME, Kalyaskarova, AE & Bugubaeva, AU 2022, Assessing the influence of cereal-legume mixtures on the productivity of degraded pastures in the Kostanay region of northern Kazakhstan. Revista Facultad Nacional De Agronomia Medellin, 75 : 9877-9886. DOI:  10.15446/RFNAM.V75N1.95199, [In Russian].
Petrov, S, Mamaeva, N, Renev, E & Narushko, M 2021, Characteristics of the cultivated area and its structure under conditions of increasing average annual temperatures. Paper presented at the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 699, DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/699/1/012035
Popolzuhina, NA et al.  2021, 666 062022DOI 10.1088/1755-1315/666/6/062022. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science paper,  the following article is open access biological products to improve the adaptability and productivity of grain and leguminous crops.
Popov, V, Serekpaev, N, Zharlygasov, Z, Stybaev, G & Ansabaeva, A 2017, Adaptive technology of environmentally–friendly production of legumes in the dry steppe zones. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 18: 73-94, DOI:10.5513/JCEA01/18.1.1869.
Röös, E, Bajzelj, B, Weil, Ch, Andersson, E, Bossio, D & Line, J 2021, Gordon Global Food Security. 28: 100487
Serekpayev, N, Popov, V, Stybayev, G, Nogayev, A & Ansabayeva, A 2016, Agroecological aspects of chickpea growing in the dry steppe zone of Akmola region, northern Kazakhstan. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 13: 1341-1351. DOI: 10.13005/bbra/2275.
Singh, J, Dhall, RK & Aujla, IS 2015, Characterization of resistance response of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) against powdery mildew (Erysiphe pisi DC) in sub-tropical plains of India. Sabrao Journal of Breeding and Genetics, 47: 384-393. 
Willer, H & Lernoud J 2019, The world of organic agriculture statistics and emerging trends. Electronic Resource.  URL: http:// mwdownloads/download/link/id/1093/?ref=1 [In English] (date of access: 13.03.2020).
Willett, W, Rockström, J, Loken, B, Springmann, M, Lang, T, Vermeulen, S, Garnett, T, Tilman, D, DeClerck, F, Wood, A, et al. 2019, Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems.  393: 447-492, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4. Epub 2019 Jan 16.
Wu, D, Wei, Z, Qu, F, Mohamed, TA, Zhu, L, Zhao, Y, Jia, L, Zhao, R, Liu, L, Li, P 2020, Effect of Fenton pretreatment combined with bacteria inoculation on humic substances formation during lignocellulosic biomass composting derived from rice straw. Bioresource Technology, 303: 122849, /10.1016/j.biortech.2020.122849.
Yesmagulova, BZ, Assetova, AY, Tassanova, ZB, Zhildikbaeva, AN & Molzhigitova, DK 2023, determination of the degradation degree of pasture lands in the west Kazakhstan region based on monitoring using geoinformation technologies. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 24: 179-187.