Effects of the alcoholic extract of ginseng roots and carob fruits in comparison with vitamin E in improving the efficiency of the male reproductive system of albino rabbits

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Sciences, Kirkuk University, 52001 Kirkuk- Iraq



Scientists have been interested in human reproduction for a long time, since on the one hand, it is related to human life, and on the other hand, it ensures the transmission of genetic traits from parents to children, as low fertility is considered one of the social problems leading to psychological disorders in couples who are unable to have children or what is called infertile. Therefore, this study aimed to find out the protective effects of the alcoholic extract of ginseng roots and carob fruits on the level of oxidative balance in semen and improving reproductive efficiency by examining the histological parameters of testes in albino male rabbits, and comparing these effects with the effects of vitamin E known for its antioxidant properties. This study included using forty adult albino male rabbits in eight groups, with five rabbits in each group and convergent weights. All groups were fed a standard diet throughout the five-month experimental period. The treatments were as follows: The first group (T1) were gavaged by distilled water, the second (T2) by 200 mg kg-1 alcoholic extract of ginseng roots, the third (T3) by 400 mg kg-1 alcoholic extract of ginseng roots , the fourth (T4) by 200 mg kg-1 alcoholic extract of carob fruits, the fifth (T5) by 400 mg kg-1 alcoholic extract of carob fruits, the sixth (T6) by 100 mg kg-1 alcoholic extract of ginseng roots + 100 mg kg-1 carob fruits, the seventh (T7) by 200 mg kg-1 alcoholic extract of ginseng roots + 200 mg kg-1 carob fruits, and finally, the eighth (T8) by 400 mg kg-1 vitamin E. Our results showed a significant drop (p < 0.05) in the level of MDA concentration and a significant upraise in the level of CAT, GSH and TAC concentration in the semen. The results also revealed the normal shape of the seminiferous tubules and an improvement in reproductive efficiency through the elevation in spermatogenesis percentage (SP), primary spermatocytes percentage (PSP), secondary spermatocytes percentage (SSP), spermatozoa percentage (SpP) and mature sperm percentage (MSP) for groups dosed by ginseng root extract + carob fruits and by vitamin E compared to the normal control group. Ginseng roots extract at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 + carob fruits at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 (T7) were superior to all treatments, followed by vitamin E (T8). Thus, we concluded from the current study that the effect of T7 reduces the level of free radicals and raises the level of antioxidants in the semen, and increases reproductive efficiency through the high percentage of sperm in the semen.


Abdulazeez, ST & Abdulrahman, SJ 2022, Study the hypolipidemic effects of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and vitamin E in albino rabbits. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 13: 641-644. ‏
Abdul Hussein, AK, Taha, TM & Mohammed, IA 2023, Effects of Myrtus communis L. leaf extract on eggs and larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyrallidae). Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21: 69-73.
Aghajani, MMR, Gorji, NM, Mirabi, P & Mojab, F 2019, Effect of Ceratonia siliqua (Carob) syrup and vitamin E on sperm parameters, oxidative stress index and sex hormones in infertile men: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine, 10: 452.
Ahmed, QA, Abdullah, KK & Hassan, HSK 2021, The effect of olive oil (OO) and hydroxytyrosol (hxt) in improving the level of sex hormones and suppressing oxidative stress and histopathological of the testes caused by hyperlipidemia in male rats. Nveo-Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils Journal| (NVEO), 13072-13086.
Ahmed, QA, Rahim, SM & Hameed, AK 2020, THE Effect Of Hydroxytyrosol (Hxt) And A Local Olive Oil Extract On The Level Of Hepcidin Hormone And Pathological Histological Changes With Iron Deposition In The Aorta Resulting From Induced Hyperlipidemia In Male Rats. Plant Archives, 20: 1895-1902. ‏
Ahmed, QA, Rahim, SM & Hameed, AK 2022, The effect of hydroxytyrosol (hxt) and local olive oil (LOO) on oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the liver resulting from induced hyperlipidaemia in male rats. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 5: 43-54. ‏
Ahmed, QA, Rahim, SM & Hameed, AK 2022b, The effect of hydroxytyrosol (hxt) and local olive oil (LOO) on lipid profile and histopathological changes in the heart as outcome of induced hyperlipidemia in male rats. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 5: 44-54. ‏
Al Abbasi, SHA, H Altaef, A, Q AL Samarraie, M, Al Naqib, ATH, & Al Majmaei, AAM 2022, Collection and diagnosis of some wild plants in the vicinity of Samarra University, Iraq. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 437-440.
Al Zamely, OY, Al Nimer, MS & Al Muslih, RK 2001, Detection the level of peroxynitrite and related antioxidant status in the serum of patients with acute myocardial infraction. National Journal of Chemistry, 4: 625-637.‏
Ammari, M, Othman, H, Rtibi, K, Sakly, M & Abdelmelek, H 2020, The effects of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L) on emotional behavior impairment and metabolic disorders induced by estrogen deficiency in rats. Journal of Medicinal Food, 23: 961-966. ‏
Annooz, DMAJ & Areaaer, AH 2022, Effects of adding ginseng roots to diet on productive traits of Ross-308 broilers exposed to heat stress. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 835-838.
Asadi, N, Bahmani, M, Kheradmand, A & Rafieian Kopaei, M 2017, The impact of oxidative stress on testicular function and the role of antioxidants in improving it: a review. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR, 11: IE01.
Ata, A, Yildiz Gulay, O, Güngör, S, Balic, A & Gulay, MS 2018, The effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) bean extract on male New Zealand White rabbit semen. World Rabbit Science, 26: 209-215. ‏
Azab, A 2020, Carob (Ceratonia siliqua): Super Food and Medicine. Literature Update. European Chemical Bulletin, 9: 306-318. ‏
Babakhanzadeh, E, Nazari, M, Ghasemifar, S & Khodadadian, A 2020, Some of the factors involved in male infertility: a prospective review. International Journal of General Medicine, 13: 29. ‏
Benzie, IF & Strain, JJ 1996, The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical biochemistry, 239: 70-76. ‏
Faramarzi, A, Aghaz, F, Bakhtiari, M & Khazaei, M 2020, In vitro application of Ceratonia siliqua improved sperm parameters and chromatin quality after vitrifacation in normozoospermic aged men. Middle East Fertility Society Journal, 24: 1-5. ‏
Faramarzi, A, Aghaz, F, Golestan Jahromi, M, Bakhtiari, M & Khazaei, M 2019, Does supplementation of sperm freezing/thawing media with Ceratonia siliqua improve detrimental effect of cryopreservation on sperm parameters and chromatin quality in normozoospermic specimens? Cell and Tissue Banking, 20: 403-409. ‏
Ghorbaninejad, Z, Eghbali, A, Ghorbaninejad, M, Ayyari, M, Zuchowski, J, Kowalczyk, M, ... & Esfandiari, F 2023, Carob extract induces spermatogenesis in an infertile mouse model via upregulation of Prm1, Plzf, Bcl-6b, Dazl, Ngn3, Stra8, and Smc1b. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 301: 115760.‏
Goth, L 1991, A simple method for determination of serum catalase activity and revision of reference range. Clinica chimica acta, 196: 143-151. ‏
Gugliuzzo, A, Mazzeo, G, Mansour, R & Tropea Garzia, G 2019, Carob pests in the Mediterranean region: bio-ecology, natural enemies and management options. Phytoparasitica, 47: 605-628. ‏
Hamad, M, H, Hadi, M, E, Alsaffar, M, F 2023, Effects of some alcoholic extracts of propolis in ovulation and fertility rate of the ovary and oviduct in quail. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21: 317-323.
Hu, X, Ding, Z, Hong, Z, Zou, Z, Feng, Y, Zhu, R, ... & Yao, B 2018, Spermatogenesis improved by suppressing the high level of endogenous gonadotropins in idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia: A case control pilot study. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 16: 1-10.
Huang, H, Wang, Y, An, Y, Jiao, W, Xu, Y, Han, Q, ... & Teng, X 2019, Selenium alleviates oxidative stress and autophagy in lead-treated chicken testes. Theriogenology, 131: 146-152. ‏
Isidori, AM, Sansone, A & Gianfrilli, D 2017, Hormonal treatment of male infertility: gonadotropins and beyond. In: Endocrinology of the testis and male reproduction (pp. 1-20). Cham: Springer International Publishing. ‏
Kadhim, MS & Younis, MI 2023. Efficiency of Zingiber officinale and Myrtus communis extracts against Red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21: 115-123.
Kim, M, Eo, H, Lim, JG, Lim, H & Lim, Y 2022, Can low-dose of dietary vitamin e supplementation reduce exercise-induced muscle damage and oxidative stress? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients, 14: 1599.
Kopalli, SR, Hwang, SY, Won, YJ, Kim, SW, Cha, KM, Han, CK, ... & Kim, SK 2015, Korean red ginseng extract rejuvenates testicular ineffectiveness and sperm maturation process in aged rats by regulating redox proteins and oxidative defense mechanisms. Experimental Gerontology, 69: 94-102. ‏
Kumar, R 2013, Medical management of non-obstructive azoospermia. Clinics, 68: 75-79.
Lakkab, I, El Hajaji, H, Lachkar, N, El Bali, B, Lachkar, M & Ciobica, A 2018, Phytochemistry, bioactivity: suggestion of Ceratonia siliqua L. as neurodegenerative disease therapy. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 15.
Lee, GY & Han, SN 2018, The role of vitamin E in immunity. Nutrients, 10: 1614. ‏
Mahdiani, E, Khadem Haghighian, H, Javadi, M, Karami, AA & Kavianpour, M 2018, Effect of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) oral supplementation on changes of semen parameters, oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarkers and reproductive hormones in infertile men. Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, 23: 56-66. ‏
Mansour, AT, Alsaqufi, AS, Omar, EA, El Beltagi, HS, Srour, TM & Yousef, MI 2022, Ginseng, Tribulus extracts and pollen grains supplementation improves sexual state, testes redox status, and testicular histology in Nile Tilapia Males. Antioxidants, 11: 875. ‏
Mohamad, HS, Wenli, S & Qi, C 2019, A review of ginseng species in different regions as a multipurpose herb in traditional Chinese medicine, modern herbology and pharmacological science. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 13: 213-226. ‏
Niu, Y, Zhang, Q, Wang, J, Li, Y, Wang, X & Bao, Y 2022, Vitamin E synthesis and response in plants. Frontiers in Plant Science13, 994058. ‏
Ok, S, Kang, JS & Kim, KM 2016, Testicular antioxidant mechanism of cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Molecular & Cellular Toxicology, 12: 149-158. ‏
Otomaru, K, Miyahara, T, Saita, H, Yamauchi, S & Nochi, T 2022, Effects of vitamin E supplementation on serum oxidative stress biomarkers, antibody titre after live bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccination, as well as serum and fecal immunoglobulin A in weaned Japanese Black calves. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 84: 1128-1133.
Potenza, MA, Montagnani, M, Santacroce, L, Charitos, IA & Bottalico, L 2022, Ancient herbal therapy: A brief history of Panax ginseng. Journal of Ginseng Research. ‏
Qin, Y, Liu, L, He, Y, Wang, C, Liang, M, Chen, X, ... & Wang, D 2016, Testicular busulfan injection in mice to prepare recipients for spermatogonial stem cell transplantation is safe and non-toxic. PLoS One, 11: e0148388. ‏
Rao, B, Soufir, JC, Martin, M & David, G 1989, Lipid peroxidation in human spermatozoa as related to midpiece abnormalities and motility. Gamete research, 24: 127-134.
Rico, D, Martín Diana, AB, Martínez Villaluenga, C, Aguirre, L, Silván, JM, Dueñas, M, ... & Lasa, A 2019, In vitro approach for evaluation of carob by-products as source bioactive ingredients with potential to attenuate metabolic syndrome (MetS). Heliyon, 5: e01175.
Sadat, SS, Mohammadi, S, Sazegar, G, Fazel, A, Ebrahimzadeh, A, Mobarhan, MG, ... & Tavallaei, S 2019, Effects of carob fruit extract on spermatogenesis, antioxidant status, and apoptosis in adult male mice. Pharmaceutical Sciences, 25: 184-189. ‏
Santacroce, L, Topi, S, Haxhirexha, K, Hidri, S, Charitos, IA & Bottalico, L 2021, Medicine and healing in the pre-socratic thought-a brief analysis of magic and rationalism in ancient herbal therapy. Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders), 21: 282-287. ‏
‏Santos, SAD, Silva, ETD, Caris, AV, Lira, FSD, Tufik, S & Dos Santos, RVT 2016, Vitamin E supplementation inhibits muscle damage and inflammation after moderate exercise in hypoxia. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 29: 516-522. ‏
Schreiber, E, Garcia, T, Sharma, RP, Torrente, M, Domingo, JL & Gómez, M 2019, Oxidative stress in testes of rats exposed to n-butylparaben. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 131: 110573.
Schreiber, E, Garcia, T, Sharma, RP, Torrente, M, Domingo, JL & Gómez, M 2019, Oxidative stress in testes of rats exposed to n-butylparaben. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 131: 110573. ‏
Sedó, CA, Bilinski, M, Lorenzi, D, Uriondo, H, Noblía, F, Longobucco, V, ... & Nodar, F 2017, Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on embryo development: Clinical and biological aspects. JBRA assisted reproduction, 21: 343. ‏
Soleimanzadeh, A, Kian, M, Moradi, S & Mahmoudi, S 2020, Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) fruit hydro-alcoholic extract alleviates reproductive toxicity of lead in male mice: Evidence on sperm parameters, sex hormones, oxidative stress biomarkers and expression of Nrf2 and iNOS. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 10: 35.‏
Sonmez, AY, Ozdemir, RC, Bilen, S & Kadak, AE 2019, Effect of ginseng root (Araliaceae sp.) extracts on sperm quality parameters and reproductive performance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh71. ‏
Sozen, E, Demirel, T & Ozer, NK 2019, Vitamin E: Regulatory role in the cardiovascular system. Iubmb Life, 71: 507-515. ‏
Sun, L, Ropartz, D, Cui, L, Shi, H, Ralet, MC & Zhou, Y 2019, Structural characterization of rhamnogalacturonan domains from Panax ginseng CA Meyer. Carbohydrate Polymers, 203: 119-127. ‏
Sun, Z, Tan, X, Ye, H, Zou, C, Ye, C & Wang, A 2018, Effects of dietary Panax notoginseng extract on growth performance, fish composition, immune responses, intestinal histology and immune related genes expression of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂× Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀) fed high lipid diets. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 73: 234-244. ‏
Süntar, I 2020, Importance of ethnopharmacological studies in drug discovery: role of medicinal plants. Phytochemistry Reviews, 19: 1199-1209. ‏
Vafaei, A, Mohammadi, S, Fazel, A, Soukhtanloo, M, Mohammadipour, A & Beheshti, F 2018, Effects of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) on sperm quality, testicular structure, testosterone level and oxidative stress in busulfan-induced infertile mice. Pharmaceutical Sciences, 24: 104-111. ‏
Wagner, H, Cheng, JW & Ko, EY 2018, Role of reactive oxygen species in male infertility: An updated review of literature. Arab Journal of Urology, 16: 35-43. ‏
Wyck, S, Herrera, C, Requena, CE, Bittner, L, Hajkova, P, Bollwein, H & Santoro, R 2018, Oxidative stress in sperm affects the epigenetic reprogramming in early embryonic development. Epigenetics & chromatin, 11: 1-17. ‏
Yang, Y, Ju, Z, Yang, Y, Zhang, Y, Yang, L & Wang, Z 2021, Phytochemical analysis of Panax species: A review. Journal of Ginseng Research, 45: 1-21. ‏
Zheng, WW, Song, GE, Wang, QL, Liu, SW, Zhu, XL, Deng, S. M, ... & Tan, Y 2018, Sperm DNA damage has a negative effect on early embryonic development following in vitro fertilization. Asian Journal of Andrology, 20: 75. ‏
Zhu, BJ, Zayed, MZ, Zhu, HX, Zhao, J & Li, SP 2019, Functional polysaccharides of carob fruit: a review. Chinese Medicine, 14: 1-10. ‏