Secondary metabolite compounds of Moringa oleifera leaves in two different urban altitude locations, Indonesia

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Agrotechnology Department, Insan Cendekia Mandiri University, Bandung, Indonesia

2 Dharma Wacana Metro College of Agricultural Sciences, Jalan Kenenga No. 3, Mulyojati, Metro, Indonesia

3 Sjakhyakirti University, XPXV+6PM, Jl. Sultan Muhammad Mansyur Kb Gede, 32 Ilir, Kec. Ilir Bar. II, Kota Palembang, Sumatera Selatan 30145, Indonesia

4 Dharma Wacana Metro College of Agricultural Sciences, Indonesia

5 Shia Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

6 Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM.21, Hegarmanah, Kec. Jatinangor, Kabupaten Sumedang, Jawa Barat 45363, Indonesia



Moringa plants from the Moringa oleifera species are widely cultivated and used by residents in tropical regions, including Indonesia. Indonesians generally in rural areas use this plant as food and traditional medicine. The development of knowledge followed by the results of recent experiments, shows that all moringa organs contain secondary metabolite compounds that are  beneficial to humans, especially as a source of good nutritious nutrition, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antihistamine, anticancer, and able to increase the body's immunity. The cultivation of moringa as yard plants in housing is still not popularly carried out by urban residents. In addition to functioning as a source of food, medicine, it is also able to function ecologically for the surrounding environment. The adaptation of growing moringa in an altitude area is quite wide, ranging from 0-1000 m above sea level. This study, conducted in March-April 2022, aimed to analyze the type of diversity and concentration of secondary metabolite compounds in the moringa leaf organs planted at two different altitudes, including the origin of housing in Turangga Village, Bandung City at an altitude of 696 masl and the origin of housing in Kenjeran Village, Surabaya City at an altitude of 4 masl in Indonesia. The analyses of moringa leaf extract through a QP-2010 type  chromatography tool identified more phytochemical diversity than those from Bandung, including carbinol, methyl cyclopentane, n-Hexane, neophytadiene, hexa decane, pronalol alaniol, methyl palmitate, and eicosyne. Meanwhile, moringa leaf extract from Surabaya, the dominant type of carbinol was identified, followed by acetic acid, and methyl hydroxylate. The results of the analysis recommend that moringa is effectively used as urban farming to meet food sources, while improving the ecological quality of the surrounding environment.  Meanwhile, to improve the quality of phytochemical diversity, it is recommended  that the cultivation of moringa should be in moderate rainfall areas with average daily air temperatures ranging from 20 ºC to 30 ºC and high soil moisture.


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