Diagnosis and control of tomato root rot disease using biological and chemical methods

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Mustansiriyah, Iraq



The tomato crop is exposed to a number of phytopathogens, including the fungus Fusarium solani, which is a widespread soil-borne pathogen, grows in a wide temperature range, facultative parasite that lives on the plants residue and other organic matter in the soil. The aim of this study was to diagnose the causal agent of tomato root rot disease based on a field-laboratory investigation during 2019- 2020. Different fields of Babil and Karbala provinces were surveyed. Samples were collected from the roots of infected plants, then fungi were determined morphologically based on taxonomic keys. Our investigations showed that F. solani was predominant fungus, forty nine bacterial isolates isolated from the rhizoplane of healthy tomato plants, eight of them was superior in the antagonism test against the pathogen in vitro. These bacteria were diagnosed as Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus, Bacillus megaterium, B. pumilus, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Enterobacter cloacae, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Paenibacillus polymyxa and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, two chemical elements of magnesium sulphate and sodium silicate were used in combination with biocontrol agents to control the disease. Under greenhouse conditions, the quadruple inoculum treatment up to ten inoculum exhibited significant increase of tomato seeds germination and dry weight of the plants, and exhibited significant decrease of disease incidence and severity.


Zhang, D, Gersberg, RM, Ng, WJ & Tan, SK 2014, Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic plant-based systems: A review, Environmental Pollution, 184: 620-639. Agrios, GN 2005, Plant pathology. 5th Edition, Elsevier Academic Press, USA, 922 p.
AL- Ethawi, MB & AL-Taae, HH 2022, First record at molecular level for Rhizoctonia solani causing Rot Root on Aleo vera plants in Iraq. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 955-965
Booth, C 1977, Fusarium: Laboratory guide to the identification of the major species. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, UK, 58 p.
Domsch, KH, Gams, W & Anderson, T 2007, Compendium of soil fungi. Second edition. IHW-Verlag, Eching, 672 p.
Domsch, KH & Gams, W 1980, Compendium of soil fungi. Academic Press, A subsidiary of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers, pp. 1227-1229.
Ellis, MB 1971, Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, UK, 608 p.
El-Sayed, SA, El-Shennawy, RZ, Ahmed Mohammed, T & Attia, AMF 2022, Induction of systemic resistance against damping-off and root-rot of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) using some bioagents, chemical inducers and a mycorrhizal fungus. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 571-583.
FAOSTAT 2021, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
Ganzalez, H, Resnik, S, Boca, R & Marasas, W 1995 Mycoflora of Argentinian corn harvested in the main production area in 1990.  Mycopathologia, 130: 29-36.
Hussein, SN & Al Zubidi, LA 2019, Biological control for crown and root rot disease of tomato caused by Drechslera halodes in Iraq. Journal of Physics. 1294-062068. pp. 1-9. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/1294/6/062068
Hussein, SN 2016, Molecular identification and integrated management of the Fusarium f. sp. cucumerinum the causal agent of Fusaruim wilt disease of Cucumis sativus L. in Iraq. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. 4: 389-397.
Hussein, SN 2018, Integrated management of the Fusarium vascular wilt disease of Cucurbita pepo in Iraq. Journal of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, 23: 40-47, DOI: 10.24200/jams.vol23iss1pp40-47
Hussein, SN 2019, Biological control of root rot disease of cowpea Vigna unguiculata caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani using some bacterial and fungal species. The Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 37: 31-39, http://dx.doi.org/10.22268/AJPP-037.1.031039
Hussein, SN and Ibrahim, TA 2018, Biological control of the charcoal rot disease of pepper caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University, 19: 27-36.
Hussein, SN & Juber, KS 2015, Identification of the causal agent of crown and root rot disease of watermelon and efficiency of disease control under greenhouse conditions. The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 46: 11-20, doi.org/10.26389/AJSRP.S220720
Kloepper, JW 2003, A review of mechanisms for plant growth promotion by PGPR. 6th International PGPR Workshop, 5-10 October 2003, Calcutta, India.
McClenny, N 2005, Laboratory detection and identification of Aspergillus species by microscopic observation and culture. Journal of Medical Mycology, 1: 125-128.
McKinney, HH 1923, Influence of soil temperature and moisture on infection of wheat seedlings by Helminthosporium sativum. Journal of Agricultural Research, 26: 195-218.
Nagao, H, Sato, K & Ogiwara, S 1994, Susceptibility of Cucurbita spp. to the cucurbit root-rot fungus, Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1. Agronomie, 2: 95-102.
Naser AL-Isawi, HI 2022, Effects of applying cold and hot aqueous extracts of ginger to control onion rot disease caused by Aspergillus niger. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 611-616.
Ongena, M & Jacques, P 2008, Bacillus lipopeptides: Versatile weapons for plant disease biocontrol. Trends in Microbiology, 16: 115-125.
Parmeter, JR & Whitney, HS 1970, Taxonomy and nomenclature of the imperfect stage. In: Parmeter, JR (ed.)  Rhizoctonia solani biology and pathology, University of California, Barkely, Los Angeles, 7-19.
Waterhouse, GM 1967, Key to Pythium pringsheim. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, England, 109 p.
Yan, L, Jing, T, Yujun, Y, Bin, L, Hui, L & Chun, L 2011, Biocontrol efficiency of Bacillus subtilis SL-13 and characterization of an antifungal Chitinase, Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 19: 128-134.