Phytotherapy for heart tonic: An ethnobotanical study in Dehloran City, Ilam Province, Western Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Madani Hospital, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

2 Department of Midwifery, Sirjan Schoola of Medical Sciences, Sirjan, Iran

3 Clinical Biochemistry and Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

4 Department of Quality Control, Research & Production Complex, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran



Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common causes of mortality around the world. The aim of this study is to summarize using native plants in Dehloran City, Ilam Province, Western Iran in heart atonic conditions. According to the results obtained from the filled questionnaires, the sixteen effective medicinal herbs recognized in the region, the most important of them include Astragalus glaucacanthus, Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad., Crataegus pontica C. Koch, Crocus sativus L., Nerium oleander L., and Xanthium spinosum L.  Its optimal use is in the treatment of mild to moderate heart failure in adult patients and to increase myocardial contraction. Therefore, it is possible to produce effective herbal medicines as alternatives to synthetic drugs and improve the cardiac tone for sufficient contraction in heart failures.


Adedapo, AA, Jimoh, FO, Afolayan, AJ & Masika, PJ 2008, Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the stems of Acokanthera oppositifolia and Adenia gummifera. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 1, Springer: 1-7.
Ansari, P, Akther, S, Hannan, JMA, Seidel, V, Nujat, NJ & Abdel-Wahab, YHA 2022, Pharmacologically active phytomolecules isolated from traditional antidiabetic plants and their therapeutic role for the management of diabetes mellitus. Molecules, 27: 4278.
Asadi, M 2016, Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in the different extracts of Caspian saffron, Crocus caspius Fisch & C. A. Mey. ex Hohen. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences,  14 : 331-338
Baharvand-Ahmadi, B, Bahmani, M, Eftekhari, Z, Jelodari, M & Mirhoseini, M 2015, Overview of medicinal plants used for cardiovascular system disorders and diseases in ethnobotany of different areas in Iran. Journal of HerbMed Pharmacology, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, 5: 39-44.
Botelho, AFM, Pierezan, F, Soto-Blanco, B & Melo, MM 2019, A review of cardiac glycosides: Structure, toxicokinetics, clinical signs, diagnosis and antineoplastic potential. Toxicon, 158: 63-68.
Boutayeb, A 2006, The double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 100: 191-199.
Dietz, BM, Mahady, GB, Pauli, GF & Farnsworth, NR 2005, Valerian extract and valerenic acid are partial agonists of the 5-HT5 a receptor in vitro. Molecular Brain Research, 138: 191-197.
El-Mallakh, RS, Brar, KS & Yeruva, RR 2019, Cardiac glycosides in human physiology and disease: Update for entomologists, Insects, 10: 102.
Fabricant, DS & Farnsworth, NR 2001, The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery., Environmental Health Perspectives, 109: 69-75.
Ghaffari, S & Roshanravan, N 2019, Saffron; An updated review on biological properties with special focus on cardiovascular effects, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 109: 21-27.
Jograna, MB, Patil, DS & Kotwal, S V 2020, Digitalis species a potent herbal drug: A review on their pharmacognosy and pharmacological activities. Journal of Current Pharma Research, 10: 3821–3831.
Joukar, S, Ghasemipour-Afshar, E, Sheibani, M, Naghsh, N & Bashiri, A 2013, Protective effects of saffron (Crocus sativus) against lethal ventricular arrhythmias induced by heart reperfusion in rat: A potential anti-arrhythmic agent, Pharmaceutical Biology, 51: 836-843.
Kalantari Meybodi, MS 2018, The effects of Crocus sativus (Saffron) on cardiovascular diseases from Iranian traditional medicine to modern phytotherapy. Iranian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 6: 70–77.
Liu, C & Huang, Y 2016, Chinese herbal medicine on cardiovascular diseases and the mechanisms of action, Frontiers in Pharmacology, 7: 469.
Long, SR, Carey, RA, Crofoot, KM, Proteau, PJ & Filtz, TM 2006, Effect of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) crude extract and chromatographic fractions on multiple activities in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay, Phytomedicine, 13: 643–650.
Mahmood, ZA, Sualeh, M, Mahmood, SBZ & Karim, MA 2010, Herbal treatment for cardiovascular disease the evidence based therapy. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 23: 1-8.
Maran, S, Yeo, WWY, Lim, S-HE & Lai, K-S 2022, Plant secondary metabolites for tackling antimicrobial resistance: A pharmacological perspective, Antimicrobial Resistance, 9: 153-173.
Marquina, C, Talic, S, Vargas-Torres, S, Petrova, M, Abushanab, D, Owen, A, Lybrand, S, Thomson, D, Liew, D &
Morsy, N 2017, Cardiac glycosides in medicinal plants, Aromatic and medicinal plants–back to nature. London: Intechopen, 10: 29-45.
Napagoda, M & Wijesundara, DSA 2022, 1 Medicinal plants as sources of novel therapeutics: The history, present, and future, Chemistry of Natural Products: Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy of Medicinal Plants, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.
Obaid, RF, Kadhim Hindi, NK, Kadhum, SA, Jafaar Alwaeli, LA & Jalil, AT 2022, Antibacterial activity, anti-adherence and anti-biofilm activities of plants extracts against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study in Hilla City, Iraq. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 367-372
Patel, S 2016, Plant-derived cardiac glycosides: Role in heart ailments and cancer management, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 84: 1036-1041.
Peer, N & Kengne, AP 2022, Review of noncommunicable diseases prevention policies and their implementation in africa: A systematic review. Qeios.
Ray, S & Saini, MK 2021, Cure and prevention of cardiovascular diseases: herbs for heart, Clinical Phytoscience, 7: 64.>.
Redouan, FZ, Benitez, G, Aboubakr, B, Bakkouri Bassma, E, Maria Picone, R, Crisafulli, A, Ben Driss, A, Kadiri, M, Molero Messa, J, Merzouki, A 2020, The status and perception of medicinal plants by local population of Talassemtane National Park (Northern Morocco). Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 18: 131-147 C
Rigelsky, JM & Sweet, B V 2002, Hawthorn: Pharmacology and therapeutic uses, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 59: 417-422.
Shaba, P 2022, Medicinal Plants and Herbs-Pivotal of Animals and Humans Medicines, Medicon Medical Sciences, 2: 29-33.
Sreekumar, S & Nisha, NC 2022, Plants are renewable source of medicine and nanoparticles: A review, Current Aspects in Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 8: 44-56.
Van Der Bijl, P & Van Der Bijl, P 2012, Cardiotoxicity of plants in South Africa. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, 23: 476-477.
Yang, Q, Lu, S & Sun, H 2010, Effects of astragalus on cardiac function and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in patients with chronic heart failure, Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi= Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, 30: 699-701.
Zomer, E 2022, Future burden of cardiovascular disease in Australia: Impact on health and economic outcomes between 2020 and 2029. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 29: 1212-1219.