First record at molecular level for Rhizoctonia solani causing Rot Root on Aleo vera plants in Iraq

Document Type : Research Paper


Plant Protection Department, Agriculture and Forestry College, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq



Aloe vera is an important medicinal and cosmetic plant. This study aimed to isolate and diagnose the pathogenic fungi associated with infected Aloe vera in nurseries, Nineveh Province, Northern Iraq in 2020. The results showed the emergence of different pathogenic fungi isolated from the roots, leaves, and stem base (crown area) of Aloe vera. The primary diagnosis based on the morphological characteristics of the fungal colony grown on PDA showed the presence of Rhizoctonia solani with the highest frequency of 82.5%.  R. solani showed different infection symptoms ranging from yellowing and leaf curling, roots in reddish brown colour, and the infection progresses resulted in appearance of reddish necrotic areas on the crown area. The fungal pathogenicity was confirmed using Koch's postulates. Alternaria alternata ranked second with a frequency rate of 55.45% followed by Fusarium solani with 43.75%. The root rot causing R. solani isolate was confirmed by molecular diagnosis using PCR technique. This is considered to be the first study in Iraq for diagnosing fungi on Aloe vera using PCR with pair of specialized primers Forward FITS 5′- TCCGTAGGTGAACCTGCGG-3′ and Reverse RITS 5′- TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3′. The results showed that the isolate under study belongs to R. solani with a band size of 550 pb, which is the expected size produced by these primers. The results of DNA sequencing of R. solani isolate under study was registered under accession number 1. MW737660. Based on the NCBI information, the isolate showed a similarity in the internal cloning region (ITS) with other isolates by 92-99%.


Al- Abbasi, SHA, Al-Majmaei, AAM, Al-Naqib, ATH, Hameed, AM, AL-Samarraie, MQ & Altaef, AH 2021, Isolation and identification of some fungi from rhizospheric soils of some wild plants at Samarra University, Iraq. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 829-839.
Ali, FM, Nazar, R, Arifin, NM, & Pop, I 2011, MHD stagnation-point flow and heat transfer towards stretching sheet with induced magnetic field. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 32: 409-418.
Avasthi, S, Gautam, AK & Bhaduaria, R 2018, Isolation and characterization of Fusarium species causing leaf spot and root rot diseases on Aloe vera. Journal on New Biological Reports, 7: 1-9.
Avasthi, S, Gautam, AK & Bhadauria, R 2011, First report of anthracnose disease of Aloe vera caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Journal of research in Biology, 6: 408-410.
‏Crosswhite, HM & Crosswhite, H 1984, Parametric model for f-shell configurations. I. The effective-operator Hamiltonian, JOSA B, 1: 246-254.
El-Sayed, SA, El-Shennawy, RZ, Ahmed Mohammed, T & Attia, AMF 2022, Induction of systemic resistance against damping-off and root-rot of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) using some bioagents, chemical inducers and a mycorrhizal fungus. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 571-583.
Georgakopoulou, M, Douni, K, Ginalas, M, Kakavogianni, O & Bassiakos, I 2020, Recent finds from final Neolithic and early Bronze age silver production sites in South-eastern Attica, In Athens and Attica in Prehistory: Proceedings of the International Conference, Athens, 2731 May 2015, Archaeopress Publishing Ltd. p. 185
Goffin, JM, Pankaj, P, Simpson, AHRW, Seil, R & Gerich, TG 2013. Does bone compaction around the helical blade of a proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) decrease the risk of cut-out? A subject-specific computational study. Bone and Joint Research, 2: 79-83ز‏سببات مرضیة فطریةیة المهمة    ة کثیرة لانه من النباتات المتحملة .
Karimi, A, Khodaverdiloo, H & Rasouli Sadaghiani MH 2017, Fungi and bacteria as helping agents for remediation of a Pb - contaminated soil by Onopordum acanthium. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 15: 249-262.
Manvitha, K & Bidya, B 2014, Aloe vera: a wonder plant and its history, cultivation and medicinal uses. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2: 85-88.
‏Nazar, R, Iqbal, N, Syeed, S & Khan, NA 2011, Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under salt stress by enhancing nitrogen and sulphur assimilation and antioxidant metabolism differentially in two mung bean cultivars. Journal of Plant Physiology, 168: 807-815.
Pankaj, P 2013, Patient‐specific modelling of bone and bone‐implant systems: the challenges. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, 29: 233-249.
Panovska, TK & Kulevanova, S 2005, Effect of some Teucrium species (Lamiaceae) on   lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 14: 957-959.
Perves, JP 2016, The multi-annual energy programme (PPE): the headlong rush. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).  INIS 47(50).
Rajasekaran, S, Ravi, K, Sivagnanam, K & Subramanian, S 2006, Beneficial effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on lipid profile status in rats with streptozotocin diabetes. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 33: 232-237.
Rajesh, SG & Laddha, KS 2012, Synthesis of 4,5-dihydroxy -9. 10-dioxanthracene-2-benzylcarboxylate ester from rhein. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1: 10-13.
Rajeshwari, U & Andallu, B 2011, Medicinal benefits of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L). Spatula DD, 1: 51-58.
Rasheed, MM, Habib, A, Aslam, M, Mansha, Z, Abdul Rehman, Khaliq, K & Ashraf W 2019, Occurrence of alternaria leaf spot disease on Aloe vera and its management. Pakistani Journal of Phytopathology, 31: 75-80.
Shaker, N, Togelius, J & Nelson, MJ 2016, Procedural content generation in games Switzerland: Springer International Publishing,
Sheet, AQ & Ali SH 2011, Some methods using for diseases treated in Ashor’s Region. Mosul University Publication, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq
Shubhi, A, Gautam, AK & Bhadauria R 2018, First report of leaf spot disease of Aloe vera caused by Fusarium proliferatum in India. Journal of Plant Protection Research 58: 109-114.
Singh, JS, Koushal, S, Kumar, A, Vimal, SR & Gupta, VK 2016, Book review: Microbial inoculants in sustainable agricultural productivity,Vol. II: Functional application. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7.
‏Sitara, U, Hassan N & Naseem J 2011, Antifungal activity of Aloe vera gel against plant pathogenic fungi, Pakistani Journal of Botany, 43: 2231-2233.
Tungala, A, Ajay, JY, Gajula, PK, Dinesh, J, & Kumar, JD 2011. Conversion of malic acid in to lactic acid in Aloe vera by using lactic acid bacteria. Journal of Phytology, 3: 1-11.