Releasing pollutants in the soil depth under the conditions of irrigation with municipal wastewater in different situations

Document Type : Research Paper


1 College of pharmacy, Al-Farahidi University, Iraq

2 Building and Construction Engineering Technology Department, AL-Mustaqbal University College, Hillah 51001, Iraq

3 AL-Nisour University College, Baghdad, Iraq

4 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ashur University College, Baghdad, Iraq

5 Department of Dentistry, Al-Noor University College, Bartella, Iraq

6 Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College, University of Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

7 Department of Prosthetic Dental Technology, Hilla University College, Babylon, Iraq



Due to the enormous amount of wastewater produced due to urbanization and industrialization, as well as the health and environmental risks associated with wastewater, it is essential to estimate the number of pollutants it generates accurately. This study aims to determine the rate (%) of all types of pollutants in wastewater transferred from the soil. The experiment utilized 16 polyethylene columns with a height of 200 cm and an inner diameter of 15 cm. Six 7-day intermittent flooding experiments were conducted. Three times every 21 days, a continuous and intermittent flooding method was used to dispose wastewater. Magnesium exhibited the highest transfer rate (%) among cations (73.46%), while sodium the lowest (39.76). Chlorine displayed the highest transfer rate among anions (60.85%), while bicarbonate the lowest (32.12%). In the cases of other pollutants, nickel revealed the highest (72.19%), while phosphorus the lowest (2.82%), indicating that the soil can retain phosphorus. In conclusion, examining various methods and comparing the results, plays a significant role in achieving optimal methods and estimating more accurate results.


Azizi, M, Faz, A, Zornoza, R, Martínez Martínez, S, Shahrokh, V & Acosta, J 2022, Environmental pollution and depth distribution of metal (loid) s and rare earth elements in mine tailing. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 10: 107526.
Bai, J, Zhao, Q, Wang, W, Wang, X, Jia, J, Cui, B & Liu, X 2019, Arsenic and heavy metals pollution along a salinity gradient in drained coastal wetland soils: Depth distributions, sources and toxic risks. Ecological indicators, 96: 91-98.
da Silva Paes, E, Gloaguen, TV, da Conceição Silva, HdA, Duarte, TS, de Almeida, MdC, Costa, ODAV & Santos, JAG 2022, Widespread microplastic pollution in mangrove soils of Todos os Santos Bay, northern Brazil. Environmental Research, 210: 112952.
Gholoubi, A, Emami, H, Alizadeh, A & Azadi, R 2019, Long term effects of deforestation on soil attributes: case study, Northern Iran. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 17: 73-81.
Gujre, N, Rangan, L & Mitra, S 2021, Occurrence, geochemical fraction, ecological and health risk assessment of cadmium, copper and nickel in soils contaminated with municipal solid wastes. Chemosphere, 271: 129573.
Guo, C, Li, J, Li, H & Li, Y 2019, Influences of stormwater concentration infiltration on soil nitrogen, phosphorus, TOC and their relations with enzyme activity in rain garden. Chemosphere, 233: 207-215.
Harms, IK, Diekötter, T, Troegel, S & Lenz, M 2021, Amount, distribution and composition of large microplastics in typical agricultural soils in Northern Germany. Science of The Total Environment, 758: 143615.
Houle, D, Marty, C, Augustin, F, Dermont, G & Gagnon, C 2020, Impact of climate change on soil hydro-climatic conditions and base cations weathering rates in forested watersheds in Eastern Canada. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 3: 535397.
Hussain, B, Ma, Y, Li, J, Gao, J, Ullah, A & Tahir, N 2022, Cadmium in Rice Is Affected by Fertilizer-Borne Chloride and Sulfate Anions: Long-Term Field Versus Pot Experiments. Processes, 10: 1253.
Jasim, LS& Aljeboree, AM 2021, Hydrogels in the removal of industrial pollution: Adsorption characteristics for the removal of a toxic dye from aqueous solutions. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 789-799.
Jia, L, Jiang, B, Huang, F & Hu, X 2019, Nitrogen removal mechanism and microbial community changes of bioaugmentation subsurface wastewater infiltration system. Bioresource technology, 294: 122140.
Kang, MJ, Kwon, YK, Yu, S, Lee, PK, Park, HS & Song, N 2019, Assessment of Zn pollution sources and apportionment in agricultural soils impacted by a Zn smelter in South Korea. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 364: 475-487.
Kebonye, NM, Eze, PN, John, K, Agyeman, PC, Němeček, K & Borůvka, L 2022, An in-depth human health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in highly polluted riverine soils, Příbram (Czech Republic). Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 44: 369-385.
Kumar, S, Rahman, MA, Islam, MR, Hashem, MA & Rahman, MM 2022, Lead and other elements-based pollution in soil, crops and water near a lead-acid battery recycling factory in Bangladesh. Chemosphere, 290: 133288.
Li, S, Zhao, B, Jin, M, Hu, L, Zhong, H & He, Z 2020, A comprehensive survey on the horizontal and vertical distribution of heavy metals and microorganisms in soils of a Pb/Zn smelter. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 400: 123255.
Liu, M, Lu, S, Song, Y, Lei, L, Hu, J, Lv, W & Yang, X 2018, Microplastic and mesoplastic pollution in farmland soils in suburbs of Shanghai, China. Environmental Pollution, 242: 855-862.
Ogoko, EC 2019, Pollution status of soil within the vicinity of Automobile mechanic workshops in Owerri Municipality, Nigeria. Communication in Physical Sciences, 4.
Qi, Y, Beriot, N, Gort, G, Lwanga, EH, Gooren, H, Yang, X & Geissen, V 2020, Impact of plastic mulch film debris on soil physicochemical and hydrological properties. Environmental Pollution, 266: 115097.
Ran, H, Deng, X, Guo, Z, Hu, Z, An, Y, Xiao, X & Xu, R 2022, Pollution characteristics and environmental availability of toxic elements in soil from an abandoned arsenic-containing mine. Chemosphere, 135189.
Rosenstock, NP, Stendahl, J, Van Der Heijden, G, Lundin, L, McGivney, E, Bishop, K & Löfgren, S 2019, Base cations in the soil bank: Non-exchangeable pools may sustain centuries of net loss to forestry and leaching. Soil, 5: 351-366.
Sari, GL, Trihadiningrum, Y & Ni'matuzahroh, N 2018, Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in soil and surface water by public oil fields in Wonocolo sub-district, Indonesia. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 19.
Wan, L, Lv, H, Qasim, W, Xia, L, Yao, Z, Hu, J &  Li, G 2022, Heavy metal and nutrient concentrations in top-and sub-soils of greenhouses and arable fields in East China–Effects of cultivation years, management, and shelter. Environmental Pollution, 119494.
Wang, S, Zhang, B, Li, T, Li, Z & Fu, J 2020, Soil vanadium (V)-reducing related bacteria drive community response to vanadium pollution from a smelting plant over multiple gradients. Environment international, 138: 105630.
Wang, Z, Xiao, J, Wang, L, Liang, T, Guo, Q, Guan, Y & Rinklebe, J 2020, Elucidating the differentiation of soil heavy metals under different land uses with geographically weighted regression and self-organizing map. Environmental Pollution, 260: 114065.
Xu, G, Yang, L, Xu, L & Yang, J 2022, Soil microplastic pollution under different land uses in tropics, southwestern China. Chemosphere, 289: 133176.
Zhang, L, Lu, Q, Ding, Y & Wu, J 2021, A procedure to design road bioretention soil media based on runoff reduction and pollutant removal performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 287: 125524.
Zhao, X, Huang, J, Lu, J & Sun, Y 2019, Study on the influence of soil microbial community on the long-term heavy metal pollution of different land use types and depth layers in mine. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 170: 218-226.
Zhou, K, Sui, YY, Xu, X, Zhang, JY, Chen, YM, Hou, M & Jiao, XG 2018, The effects of biochar addition on phosphorus transfer and water utilization efficiency in a vegetable field in Northeast China. Agricultural Water Management, 210: 324-329.
Zinchenko, MK, Zinchenko, SI, Mazirov, MA, Ragimov, AO & Shitikova, AV 2021, Biological indicators in the environmental monitoring of gray forest soil of agrosystems. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 891-896.