Effects of water shortage on food legume crops

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Al-Israa University, Amman, Jordan

2 Al-Manara College for Medical Sciences, Misan, Iraq

3 Medical Technical College, Al-Farahidi University, Iraq

4 Anesthesia Techniques Department, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon, Iraq

5 Anesthesia Techniques, Al–Nisour University College, Iraq

6 Medical Laboratory Technology Department, College of Medical Technology, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq

7 Altoosi University College, Najaf, Iraq

8 Medical Laboratory Techniques Department, Hilla University College, Babylon, Iraq

9 College of Health and Medical Technology, Al-Ayen University, Thi-Qar, Iraq

10 Department of Pharmacy, Al-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq

11 Medical Laboratory Technology, Ashur University College, Baghdad, Iraq

12 People’s Friendship University, Russia



The clamor for agricultural resources is being pushed up by global climatic change and population growth. Such consequences are huge challenges to food security, wreaking havoc on the agroecosystem and causing biotic and abiotic stresses in plants, which in turn cause metabolic and physiological problems. Food legume crops contribute to food security in underdeveloped countries by playing an essential role in conservation farming methods. Drought has, nevertheless, exhibited a negative impact on productivity in many parts of the world. While water shortage is a significant abiotic barrier to legume crop output, drought impacts differ depending on drought timing, agro-climatic area, soil texture, and legume species. To resolve these concerns, we gathered data from the recent publications that revealed drought-induced changes in the production of monoculture legumes in field circumstances and examined it using meta-analysis approaches. Research findings revealed that the water cut’s quantity was strongly associated with a decrease in yield. However, the magnitude of the effect differed depending on the phenological stage of the drought and legume species. The legumes such as groundnut and lentil exhibited the lowest yield reductions (31.2% and 19.6% for groundnut and lentil, accordingly), however, the biggest yield drop (39.8%) facing the maximum water reduction was for faba bean.


Adarsh, S, Jacob, J & Giffy, T, 2019, Role of pulses in cropping systems: A review, Agricultural Reviews, 40: 185-191.
Akram, NA, Shafiq, F & Ashraf, M, 2018, Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.): A prospective legume crop to offer multiple health benefits under changing climate, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 17: 1325-1338.
Banerjee, J, Das, A, Parihar, AK, Sharma, R, Pramanik, K & Barpete, S, 2022, Genomic designing towards development of abiotic stress tolerant grass pea for food and nutritional security, In: Genomic Designing for Abiotic Stress Resistant Pulse Crops. Springer, pp.  345-381.
Blackie, M, Dixon, J, Mudhara, M, Rusike, J, Snapp, S & Mekuria, M, 2019, Maize mixed farming system: An engine for rural growth and poverty reduction, In: Farming Systems and Food Security in Africa. Routledge, pp.  67-104.
Chand Jha, U, Nayyar, H, Mantri, N & Siddique, KH, 2021, Non-Coding RNAs in Legumes: Their Emerging Roles in Regulating Biotic/Abiotic Stress Responses and Plant Growth and Development, Cells, 10: 1674.
De Notaris, C, Jensen, JL, Olesen, JE, da Silva, TS, Rasmussen, J, Panagea, I & Rubæk, GH, 2021, Long-term soil quality effects of soil and crop management in organic and conventional arable cropping systems, Geoderma, 403:115383.
Foyer, CH, Siddique, KH, Tai, AP, Anders, S, Fodor, N, Wong, F-L, Ludidi, N, Chapman, MA, Ferguson, BJ & Considine, MJ, 2019, Modelling predicts that soybean is poised to dominate crop production across Africa, Plant, Cell & Environment, 42: 373-385.
Gautam, AK, Sharma, D, Sharma, J & Saini, KC, 2020, Legume lectins: Potential use as a diagnostics and therapeutics against the cancer, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 142: 474-483.
Iannetta, PP, Hawes, C, Begg, GS, Maaß, H, Ntatsi, G, Savvas, D, Vasconcelos, M, Hamann, K, Williams, M & Styles, D, 2021, A multifunctional solution for wicked problems: value-chain wide facilitation of legumes cultivated at bioregional scales is necessary to address the climate-biodiversity-nutrition nexus, Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 5.
Kamran, F & Reddy, N, 2018, Bioactive peptides from legumes: Functional and nutraceutical potential, Recent Advances in Food Science, 1: 134-149.
Kebede, E, 2020, Grain legumes production and productivity in Ethiopian smallholder agricultural system, contribution to livelihoods and the way forward, Cogent Food & Agriculture, 6: 1722353.
Keykha, Z, Tavassoli, A & Piri, I, 2021, Effect of application of Legume green manure and different tillage systems on agronomic, ecological, and soil physicochemical aspects in corn cultivation, Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production, 11: 119-137.
Kumar, S, Meena, RS, Lal, R, Yadav, GS, Mitran, T, Meena, BL, Dotaniya, ML & EL-Sabagh, A, 2018, Role of legumes in soil carbon sequestration, In: Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer, pp.  109-138.
Kumar, S, Meena, RS, Datta, R, Verma, SK, Yadav, GS, Pradhan, G, Molaei, A, Rahman, GKM & Mashuk, HA, 2020, Legumes for carbon and nitrogen cycling: an organic approach, In: Carbon and nitrogen cycling in soil. Springer, pp.  337-375.
Kumari, VV, Roy, A, Vijayan, R, Banerjee, P, Verma, VC, Nalia, A, Pramanik, M, Mukherjee, B, Ghosh, A & Reja, M, 2021, Drought and heat stress in cool-season food legumes in sub-tropical regions: Consequences, adaptation, and mitigation strategies, Plants, 10: 1038.
McKenzie, FC & Williams, J, 2015, Sustainable food production: constraints, challenges, and choices by 2050, Food Security, 7: 221-233.
Merga, B & Haji, J, 2019, Economic importance of chickpea: Production, value, and world trade, Cogent Food & Agriculture, 5: 1615718.
Nigam, SN, Chaudhari, S, Deevi, KC, Saxena, KB & Janila, P, 2021, Trends in Legume Production and Future Outlook, In Genetic Enhancement in Major Food Legumes. Springer, pp.  7-48.
Nutt, BJ, Loi, A, Hackney, B, Yates, RJ, D’Antuono, M, Harrison, RJ & Howieson, JG, 2021, “Summer sowing”: A successful innovation to increase the adoption of key species of annual forage legumes for agriculture in Mediterranean and temperate environments, Grass and Forage Science, 76: 93-104.
Papandreou, C, Becerra-Tomás, N, Bulló, M, Martínez-González, MÁ, Corella, D, Estruch, R, Ros, E, Arós, F, Schroder, H & Fitó, M, 2019, Legume consumption and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in the PREDIMED study, Clinical Nutrition, 38: 348-356.
Pathania, R, Chawla, P, Khan, H, Kaushik, R & Khan, MA, 2020, An assessment of potential nutritive and medicinal properties of Mucuna pruriens: a natural food legume, 3 Biotech, 10: 1-15.
Paul, BK, Groot, JC, Maass, BL, Notenbaert, AM, Herrero, M & Tittonell, PA, 2020, Improved feeding and forages at a crossroads: Farming systems approaches for sustainable livestock development in East Africa, Outlook on Agriculture, 49: 13-20.
Peoples, MB, Giller, KE, Jensen, ES & Herridge, DF, 2021, Quantifying country-to-global scale nitrogen fixation for grain legumes: I. Reliance on nitrogen fixation of soybean, groundnut, and pulses, Plant and Soil, 1-14.
Pradhan, J, Katiyar, D & Hemantaranjan, A, 2019, Drought mitigation strategies in pulses, Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation, 8:567–576.
Rakhimova, OV, Khramoy, VK, Sikharulidze, TD & Yudina, IN, 2021, Influence of nitrogen fertilizers on protein productivity of vetch-wheat grain under different water supply conditions, Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 951-954.
Rani, K, Sharma, P, Kumar, S, Wati, L, Kumar, R, Gurjar, DS & Kumar, D, 2019, Legumes for sustainable soil and crop management, In Sustainable management of soil and environment. Springer, pp.  193-215.
Sehgal, A, Sita, K, Siddique, KH, Kumar, R, Bhogireddy, S, Varshney, RK, HanumanthaRao, B, Nair, RM, Prasad, PV & Nayyar, H, 2018, Drought or/and heat-stress effects on seed filling in food crops: Impacts on functional biochemistry, seed yields, and nutritional quality, Frontiers in Plant Science, 9: 1705.
Sekaran, U, Lai, L, Ussiri, DA, Kumar, S & Clay, S, 2021, Role of integrated crop-livestock systems in improving agriculture production and addressing food security: A review, Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 5: 100190.
Shevchenko, VA, Soloviev, AM & Popova, NP, 2021a, Energy and economic efficiency of corn silage production with flat grain of soy bean on reclaimed lands of upper volga, Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 947-950.
Shevchenko, VA, Soloviev, AM & Popova, NP, 2021b, Eligibility criteria for joint ensilage of maize and yellow lupine on poorly productive lands of the Upper Volga region, Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 745-751.
Smith, MR, Veneklaas, E, Polania, J, Rao, IM, Beebe, SE & Merchant, A, 2019, Field drought conditions impact yield but not nutritional quality of the seed in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), PLoS One, 14: e0217099.
Sofi, PA, Baba, ZA, Hamid, B & Meena, RS, 2018, Harnessing soil rhizobacteria for improving drought resilience in legumes, In: Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer, pp.  235-275.
Sprent, JI & Gehlot, HS, 2010, Nodulated legumes in arid and semi-arid environments: are they important? Plant Ecology & Diversity, 3: 211-219.
Tiwari, P, Chintagunta, AD, Dirisala, VR & Sampath Kumar, NS, 2020, Legume derived bioactive peptides, In Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 45. Springer, pp.  29-52.
Vidigal, P, Romeiras, MM & Monteiro, F, 2019, Crops diversification and the role of orphan legumes to improve the Sub-Saharan Africa farming systems, Sustainable Crop Production, 45-60.
Vollmann, J, 2016, Soybean versus other food grain legumes: a critical appraisal of the United Nations International Year of Pulses 2016, Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food, and Environment, 67: 17-24.
Winham, DM, Davitt, ED, Heer, MM & Shelley, MC, 2020, Pulse knowledge, attitudes, practices, and cooking experience of Midwestern US university students, Nutrients, 12: 3499.