Estimation of ozone content employing ground- based UV measurements over Baghdad City, Iraq

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Atmospheric Science, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq



In terms of surface temperature control, ozone is a greenhouse gas that has a significant influence on weather and climate system regulation. O3 absorbs the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum solar radiation, leading to a variation in the electronic energy of the molecule. The more powerful absorption occurs in UV rays, with lower absorption in the visible region. O3 may absorb the infrared (IR rays) of the earth's atmospheric system. The methods used in the present study were based on ground-based UV measurements over Baghdad City- Iraq, where the considered UV radiation values were measured every 10 minutes during the period from October 2014 to December 2015. The sun radiation was measured by a station located at Mustansiriyah University in Iraq (33º08’44” N; 44º05’53” E; altitude 34 m). The results showed a positive direct relationship between the ultraviolet B (UV-B) and Global Solar Radiation (G) for hourly values in Baghdad, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.885, and the UV levels rise with an increase in G. As a result, an empirical relationship association between them were established. In all areas of correlation relationship, the Determination Coefficient (R2) of the two variables was greater than 0.98. With a good agreement between calculated values of hourly UV (UVe), and corresponding measured values (UVm), correlation coefficient R = 0.94. Calculated linear regression accounted for 90 % of the variance. So, the results of the UV-G relationship may be used to estimate UV-B values for measurements taken over a period of time at the Mustansiriyah site, for values that are difficult to measure, or for any place in Baghdad or the central area of Iraq, or sites with comparable climates.


Al Salihi, AM 2009, Total ozone column variation over Baghdad and selected cities in neighbour countries. Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science, 20.
Al Salihi, AM 2011, Spectral analysis of total ozone column variability using TOMS data over Baghdad, Iraq. Journal homepage: www. IJEE., 2: 231-236.
Al Salihi, AM, Hassan, ZM, Gangani, BJ, Parsania, PH, Hashim, FS & Sami, NA 2015, Temporal and spatial variability and trend investigation of total ozone column over Iraq employing remote sensing data: 1979-2012. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, 53: 1-18.
Ali, QAU 2015, Evaluation of the correlation between Ultraviolet and Broadband Solar Radiation at a subtropical location (Qena, Upper Egypt). International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 2: 17-24.
Al Salihi, AM & ABDULATIF, SH 2016, Analysis Global and Ultraviolet Radiation in Baghdad City, Iraq. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 6: 117-124.
Atlas, C 2018, Maps of precipitation rate and some meteorological factors. 2018 Iraqi Meteorological Organization and Seismology. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 49(6): 0018-0041
Cañada, J, Pedros, G & Bosca, J 2003, Relationships between UV (0.290-0.385 µm) and broad band solar radiation hourly values in Valencia and Córdoba, Spain. Energy, 28: 199-217.
Demirhan, D, Kahya, C, Topcu, S & Incecik, S 2005, Total ozone variation in south Eastern Europe. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26: 3479-3486.
El Noubi, E 2006, Surface ultraviolet radiation measurements in Qena, Egypt, South Valley University. Advances in Space Research 57(3), DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2015.11.030
Escobedo, JF, Gomes, EN, Oliveira, AP & Soares, J 2009, Modelling hourly and daily fractions of UV, PAR and NIR to global solar radiation under various sky conditions at Botucatu, Brazil. Applied Energy, 86: 299-309.
Fahey, DW & Hegglin, MI 2010, Twenty questions and answers about the ozone layer: 2010 update. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, 4.1-4.64.
Frederick, JE, Slusser, JR & Bigelow, DS 2000, Annual and international behaviour of solar ultraviolet irradiance revealed by broadband measurements. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 72: 488-496.
Gaur, A, Tripathi, S, Kanawade, V, Tare, V & Shukla, S 2014, Four-year measurements of trace gases (SO2, NOx, CO, and O3) at an urban location, Kanpur, in northern India. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 71: 283-301.
Hassan, IA, Basahi, JM, Ismail, IM & Habeebullah, TM 2013, Spatial distribution and temporal variation in ambient ozone and its associated NOx in the atmosphere of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 13: 1712-1722.
Hegglin, MI, Fahey, DW, Mcfarland, M, Montzka, SA & Nash, ER 2015, Twenty questions and answers about the ozone layer: 2014 Update-Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2014. UN Environment Programme,
Hester, R, Harrison, R & Webb, AR 2000, Ozone depletion and changes in environmental UV-B radiation. Causes and environmental implications of increased UV-B radiation. pp. 17-36, 10.1039/9781847550354.
Karavana Papadimou, K, Psiloglou, B, Lykoudis, S & Kambezidis, H 2013, Model for estimating atmospheric ozone content over Europe for use in solar radiation algorithms. Global Nest Journal, 15: 152-162.
Kipp & Zonen 2000a, CNR1 net radiometer: Instruction manual. Kipp and Zonen, 46 p.
Komala, N. & Ambarsari, N 2018. Seasonal Variability Of Ozone Vertical Profiles in Indonesia Based on AQUA-AIRS Data.  IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, IOP Publishing, 012037.
Lefohn, AS,Wernli, H, Shadwick, D, Limbach, S, Oltmans, SJ & Shapiro, M 2011, The importance of stratospheric–tropospheric transport in affecting surface ozone concentrations in the western and northern tier of the United States. Atmospheric Environment, 45: 4845-4857.
Mckenzie, RL, Aucamp, PJ, Bais, AF, Björn, LO, Ilyas, M & Madronich, S 2011, Ozone depletion and climate change: impacts on UV radiation. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, 10: 182-198.
Nozawa, H, Yamamoto, H, Makita, K, Schuch, NJ, Pinheiro, DK, Carbone, S, Mac Mahon, RM & Foppiano, A J 2007, Ground-based observation of solar UV radiation in Japan, Brazil and Chile. Revista Brasileira de Geofísica, 25: 17-25.
Organization, WH & Organization, WH 2010, Ultraviolet radiation and the INTERSUN Programme. Retrieved February, 2010.
Organization, WH & Protection, ICONIR 2002, Global solar UV index: a practical guide. World Health Organization.
Pancholi, P, Kumar, A, Bikundia, DS & Chourasiya, S 2018, An observation of seasonal and diurnal behaviour of O3–NOx relationships and local/regional oxidant (OX = O3+ NO2) levels at a semi-arid urban site of Western India. Sustainable Environment Research, 28: 79-89.
Preez, DJD, Ajtić, JV, Bencherif, H, Bègue, N, Cadet, JM & Wright, CY 2019, Spring and summer time ozone and solar ultraviolet radiation variations over Cape Point, South Africa.  Annales Geophysicae, Copernicus GmbH, 129-141.
Rabee, AM 2015, Estimating the health risks associated with air pollution in Baghdad City, Iraq. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187: 1-12.
Reddy, BSK, Kumar, KR, Balakrishnaiah, G, Gopal, KR, Reddy, R, Sivakumar, V, Lingaswamy, A, Arafath, S M, Umadevi, K & Kumari, SP 2012, Analysis of diurnal and seasonal behaviour of surface ozone and its precursors (NOx) at a semi-arid rural site in southern India. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 12: 1081-1094.
Robaa, S 2004, A study of ultraviolet solar radiation at Cairo urban area, Egypt. Solar Energy, 77: 251-259.
Sadanaga, Y, Shibata, S, Hamana, M, Takenaka, N & Bandow, H 2008, Weekday/weekend difference of ozone and its precursors in urban areas of Japan, focusing on nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. Atmospheric Environment, 42: 4708-4723.
Santos, JB, Villán, DM & Castrillo, ADM 2011, Analysis and cloudiness influence on UV total irradiation. International Journal of Climatology, 31: 451-460.
Taalas, P, Amanatidis, GT & Heikkilä, A 2000, European conference on atmospheric UV radiation: Overview. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 105: 4777-4785.
Xu, J, Zhang, X, Xu, X, Zhao, X, Meng, W & Pu, W 2011, Measurement of surface ozone and its precursors in urban and rural sites in Beijing. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 2: 255-261.