Effects of rainbow trout farming on water quality around the sea farms in the south of the Caspian Sea

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Caspian Sea Ecology Research Center (CSERC), Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO), Agriculture Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Sari, Mazandaran, Iran

2 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, Kurdistan University, Sanandaj, Iran

10.22124/cjes.2022.5725

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical factors of seawater to determine the water quality index around two marine farms of rainbow trout in the south of the Caspian Sea. Each farm had four floating polyethylene cages with a final fish harvest of 60 tons. The water sampling was performed in January and March 2014 as well as May and August 2015 from around the cages (close: cage shade, 50 m and 100 m; distant: 1000 m) in three geographical directions: east, west, and south. The water quality parameters including pH, temperature, transparency, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) were determined. The results of the analysis of variance of data at both farms showed that changes in physical and chemical parameters of water had only significant differences at the time of sampling (p < 0.05). The highest value of variance in the principal component analysis (PCA; 30.23% from 84.75%) was related to EC, temperature, salinity, total nitrogen, pH, and organic phosphorus. Iran Surface Water Quality Index (IRWQISC) at near and far distances from farms was determined to be moderate (40-55). The main reasons for this result can be attributed to the small-scale and short fish farming period along with the hydrological conditions of the region.

Keywords


Adeleke, ARO, Nik Daud, NN, Amimul, A & Pradhan, B 2014, Water quality assessment of UPM Lake and the impact of geographic information system, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 2: 158-162.
Alewi, HK, Abood, EA & Ali, G 2022, An inquiry into the relationships between BOD5, COD, and TOC in Tigris River, Maysan Province, Iraq. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 37-43.
Alvial, A 2013, Challenges for developing emerging economies to engage in off-the coast and offshore aquaculture: the perspective from a case study. In A, Lovatelli, J, Aguilar-Manjarrez & D, Soto (Eds.). Expanding mariculture farther offshore: technical, environmental, spatial and governance challenges. FAO Technical Workshop, 22-25 March 2010, Orbetello, Italy. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings, No. 24, Rome, FAO, pp. 297-314.
APHA (American Public Health Association) 2005, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. Washington DC.
Beveridge, MCM 1984, Cage and pen fish farming. Carrying capacity models and environmental impact. FAO Documentary Technical Peches, No. 255. FAO, Rome, 126 p.
Carr, GM & Neary, JP 2008, Water Quality for Ecosystem and Human Health, 2nd Edition. United Nations Environment Programme Global Environment Monitoring System. http://www.gemswater.org/ publications/pdfs/water_quality_human_health.pdf.
Craig, E 1999, Aquaculture Impact on the Environment. Aquaculture Economics and Management, 3: 43-57.
Demirak, A, Balci, A & Tufekci, M 2006, Environmental impact of the marine aquaculture in Gulluk Bay, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 123: 1-12.
Duff, A 1987, Scottish fish farm pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18: 261-270.
Eaton, AD, Clesceri, LS, Rice, EW & Greenberg, AE 2007, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, American Public Health Association, 21st Edition, 1179.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) 2009, Environmental impact assessment and monitoring in aquaculture. Aquaculture Management and Conservation Service Fisheries and Aquaculture Management Division, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, 675 p.
Farabi, SMV, Afraei, MA, Nasrolahzaeh Saravi, H, Behmanesh, SH, Mohseni, M, Azari, AH, Daryanabard, GHR, Najafpour, SH & Abediyan, A 2017, Comprehensive study of the Southern Caspian Sea ecosystem with aim of establishing marine cage fish culture and aquaculture development. Iranian Fisheries Research Organization. 204 p. (In Persian).
Fallah, M, Pirali Zefrehei, AR, Hedayati, SA, Bagheri, T 2021, Comparison of temporal and spatial patterns of water quality parameters in Anzali Wetland (southwest of the Caspian Sea) using Support vector machine model, Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 95-104
Fatih Ali, S, Hamud Hays, H, Abdul-Jabar, R 2021, Application of CCME water quality index for drinking purpose in Tigris River within Wasit Province, Iraq. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 781-787.
Gorlach-Lira, K, Pacheco, C, Carvalho, LCT, Melo Júnior, HN & Crispim, MC 2013, The influence of fish culture in floating net cages on microbial indicators of water quality. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 73: 457-463.
Grigorakis, K & Rigos, G 2011, Aquaculture effect on environmental and public welfare- The case of Mediterranean mariculture. Chemosphere, 855: 899-919.
Guo, L & Li, Z 2003, Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus from fish cage-culture on the communities of a shallow lake in middle Yangtze River basin of China. Aquaculture, 226: 201-212.
Hakanson, L 1986, Environmental impact of fish cage farms. In: Aquaculture - an Industry for the Future. The Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, Stockholm, IVA Report, 308: 179-199.
Huang, W, Wu, Y & Shu, J 1998, Hydrographical environmental problems and countermeasures of main lakes and reservoirs in China. Journal of Lake Science, 10: 83-90.
Iran Veterinary Organization 2017, Technical regulations, allocation of marine zones to cage aquaculture applicants. http://shilat.com/Articlefile/.pdf.
Johansson, D, Ruohonen, K, Kiessling, A & Oppedal, F 2007, Effect of environmental factors on swimming depth preferences of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and temporal and spatial variations in oxygen levels in sea cages at a fjord site. Aquaculture, 254: 594-605.
Kalantzi, I, Shimmield, TM, Pergantis, SA, Papageorgiou, N, Black, KD & Karakassis, I 2013, Heavy metals, trace elements and sediment geochemistry at four Mediterranean fish farms. Science of the Total Environment, 444: 128-137.
Kho, K 2016, Water Quality and Primary Productivity at Cage Culture and Non-Cage Culture.Sites at Batang Ai HEP Reservoir, Lubok Antu, Sarawak. Bachelor Science with Honours. Faculty of Resource Science and Technology. University of Malaysia Sarawa, 80 p.
Masoudiyan, A 2006, Iranian Rainfall Regime, Journal of Geographical Research. 37: 47-59. (In Persian).
Mente, AE, Graham, J, Pierce, AE, Santos, AE & Neofitou, C 2006, Effect of feed and feeding in the culture of salmonids on the marine aquatic environment: a synthesis for European aquaculture. Aquaculture Int, 14: pp. 499-522.
Miki, K, Sano, M & Bailly, D 1992, The role and problems of coastal fish culture in Japan. Journal of Oceanography, 18:385-395.
Nabavi, SMB, Yavari, V, Dehghan Madise, S, Sayed Mortezaei, SR & Jahani, N 2011, Evaluation of abundance and diversity of polychaetes under cages of Ghazaleh (Musa Estuary). Journal of Oceanography. 1: 1-9 (In Persian).
Nash, CE  2001, The net-pen salmon farming industry in the Pacific Northwest. US Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-NWFSC-46.
NIST/SEMATECH 2010, Statistical Methods, e-Handbook. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is an agency of the US Commerce Department. http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/, date.
Ola, H & Hall, OJ 1994, Chemical fluxes and mass balances in a marine fish cage farm. III. Silicon. Aquaculture, 120: 305-318, https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(94)90087-6.
Olsen, Y & Olsen, LM 2008, `Environmental impact of aquaculture on coastal planktonic ecosystems`. In: K, Tsuka-moto, T, Kawamura, T, Takeuchi, TD, Beard, & MJ Kaiser, MJ (eds.), Fisheries for global welfare and environment. Proceeding of 5th World Fisheries Congress 2008, Terrapin, Tokyo, pp. 181-196.
Omidi, A & Shariati, F 2021, Evaluation of Pasikhan River, north of Iran Using Water Quality Index (NSFWQI), Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 219-230.
Phillips, MJ, Enyuan, F, Gavine, F, Hooi, TK, Kutty, MN, Lopez, NA, Mungkung, R, Ngan, TT, White, PG, Yamamoto, K & Yokoyama, H 2009, `Review of environmental impact assessment and monitoring in aquaculture in Asia-Pacific`. In FAO. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring in aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 527. Rome, FAO. pp. 153-283.
Pillay, TVR & Kutty, MN 2005, Aquaculture: Principles and Practices, 2nd Edition. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, USA, pp.458-460.
Pittenger, R, Anderson, B, Benetti, D, Dayton, P, Dewey, B, Goldburg, R, Rieser, A, Sher, B & Sturgulewski, A 2007, Sustainable Marine Aquaculture, Fulfilling the Promise: Managing the Risks. Report of the marine aquaculture task force.
Plavan, G, Nicoara, M, Apetroaiei, N & Plavan, O 2012, The effect of fish cage aquaculture on the profound macro-zoobenthos in the oligo-mesotrophic reservoir Izvoru Muntelui Bicaz (Romania). Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 7:145-148.
Pradhan, UK, Shirodkar, PV & Sahu, BK 2009, Physico-chemical characteristics of the coastal water off Devi estuary, Orissa and evaluation of its seasonal changes using chemometric techniques. Current Science, 96: 9-10.
Price, CS & Morris, JA 2013, Marine Cage Culture and the Environment. Centre for Coastal Fisheries and Habitat Research, 158 p.
Raftery, A 1993, `Bayesian model selection in structural equation models`. In K, Bollen, K & J, Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park, California, pp. 163-180.
Rensel, JEJ, Kiefer, DA, Forster, JRM, Woodruff, DL & Evans, NR 2007, `Offshore finfish mariculture in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Agency, 19: 113-129.
Rubio-Arias, H, Contreras-Caraveo, M, Manuel Quintana, R, Saucedo-Teran, RA & Pinales-Munguia, A 2012, An Overall Water Quality Index (WQI) for a Man-Made Aquatic Reservoir in Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9: 1687-1698, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9051687.
Sanchez, E, Colmenarejo, MF, Vicente, J, Rubio, A, García, MG & Travieso, L 2007, Use of the water quality index and dissolved oxygen deficit as simple indicators of watersheds pollution. Ecological Indicators, 7: 315-328.
Santos, RM, Rocha, GS, Rocha, O & Wisniewski, MJS 2009, Influence of net cage fish cultures on the diversity of the zooplankton community in the Furnas hydroelectric reservoir, Areado, MG, Brazil. Aquaculture Research, 40: 1-9.
Sapozhnikov, VN, Agativa, AE, Arjanova, NV, Nalitova, EA, Mardosova, NV, Zobarowij, VL & Bandarikov, EA 1988, Methods of hydrochemical analysis of the major nutrients. VNIRO publisher, Moscow, Russia.
Simeonov, V, Sarbu, C, Massart, DL & Tsakovski, S 2001, Danube River water data modelling by multivariate data analysis. Springer-Verlag Mikrochim Acta, 137: 243-248.
Soto, D & Norambuena, F 2004, Evaluation of salmon farming effects on marine systems in the inner seas of southern Chile: A large-scale mensurative experiment. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 20: 493-501.
Tidwell, JH & Allan, GL 2001, Fish as food: aquaculture’s contribution: Ecological and economic impacts and contributions of fish farming and capture fisheries. EMBO Reports, 2: 958-963
Tlusty, MF, Pepper, VA & Anderson, MR 2005, `Reconciling aquaculture’s influence on the water column and benthos of an estuarine fjord-A case study from Bay d’Espoir, Newfoundland`. pp. 115-128, In BT, Hargrave (Ed.). Environmental effects of marine finfish aquaculture. Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 5M. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Troell, M, Joyce, A, Chopin, T, Neori, A, Buschmann, AH & Fang, JG 2009, Ecological engineering in aquaculture potential for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) in marine offshore systems. Aquaculture, 297: 1-9.
UNDPFAO 1989, Site selection criteria for marine finfish net cage culture in Asia. http://www.fao.org/3/contents/c64db3a7-9ff0-5c7b-bf4c-d9bc657ab35d/AC262E00.htm.
Usman, A, Dube, K, Shukla, SP, Salaskar, P, Prakash, C, Sawant, PB & Singh, R 2018, Water Quality Index as a Tool for Assessment of Status of an Urban Lake of Mumbai. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences,7: 520-533. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.704.061.
Venturoti, GP, Veronez, AC, Salla, RV & Gomes, LC 2014, Phosphorus, total ammonia nitrogen and chlorophyll a from fish cages in a tropical lake (Lake Palminhas, Espirito Santo, Brazil). Aquaculture Research, pp. 1-15.
Wetzel, RG & Likens, GE 1991, Limnological Analyses. Springer, 2th edition, New York, USA, 391 p.
Wu, RSS 1995, The environmental impact of marine fish culture: Towards a sustainable future. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31(4-12): 159-166.
Zaker, NH, Ghaffari, P, Jamshidi, S & Nouranian, M 2011, Currents on the southern continental shelf of the Caspian Sea off Babolsar, Mazandaran in Iran, Journal of Coastal Research, 64: 1989-1997
Zanatta, AS, Perbiche-Neves, G, Ventura, R, Ramos, IP & Carvalho, ED 2011, Effects of a small fish cage farm on zooplankton assemblages (Cladocera and Copepoda: Crustacea) in a subtropical reservoir (SE Brazil). Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 5: 530-539.
Zidani, O, Dakki, M, Fekhaoui, M, Errahmani, H, Fadil, F 2020, Availability and significance of data for the development of a geodatabase on the water physicochemical quality: the example of the Moroccan ground waters. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 18: 319-327.
Zhang, X, Zhang,Y, Zhang, Q, Liu, P, Guo, R, Jin, Sh, Liu, J, Chen, L, Ma, Zh & Liu, Y 2020, Evaluation and analysis of water quality of marine aquaculture area. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health. 17, 1446; DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17041446. License.