Introducing Hygrocybe ceracea (Sowerby) P. Kumm: Parasite of Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. (Bryophyta) in the north of Iran


1 Department of Biology, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Medical student at Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran



Hygrocybe ceracea (Sowerby) P. Kumm, the small and macroscopic fungus, with a yellow, greasy, and fragile appearance is reported for the first time on Funaria hygrometrica in Tonekabon, west of Mazandaran province, North of Iran. This fungus appears among the stones and cobblestones with a little humic in high humidity of winter, after stopping rain. The stipe is white, 2 mm in average diameter and 1-2 cm in length. The cap diameter is 0.5 cm in average. Spores are lacrymoid,  4 Í 2.35 μm in their dimensions. The average length of basidium is 10 μm. Tetraspores often remain attached together after separation from the basidium. The cap is initially convex, but it turns to the conic shape with passing time and aging. The middle part becomes turgid, the sugarloaf shape and the margins become flat, and its colour turns from yellow to brownish orange. Its companion species in Iran are Funaria, lichen and grass. The relationship between H. ceracea and Funaria hygrometrica is parasitic type. Funaria leaf spots are caused by infection with this fungus. It is not a poisonous fungus, hence domestic birds and crows feed on it with great interest. Regrowth and grazing resistance were evident in function of the fungus.


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