Agricultural extension in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic: Issues and challenges in the field

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Agribusiness, Universitas Singaperbangsa Karawang, West Java, Indonesia

2 Department of Development Economics,Universitas Muhammadiyah Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia

3 Major Agrotechnology, STIPER Berau, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

4 Department of Accounting, Universitas Universitas Presiden Bekasi,East Java,Indonesia

5 Department of Accounting, Universitas Wahid Hasyim Semarang,East Java,Indonesia

6 Department of Architecture,Universitas Faletehan,Bandung,West Java, Indonesia


The extension is an active procedure requiring contact between the extension worker and the individual to establish a behavior change process. This study examines the revival of the notion of extension, the difficulty of extension in the period of the COVID-19 epidemic, and the problems of extension in the future. The revitalization of the meaning of extension includes: (1) extension is not just conveying information messages to the target (farmers) but is an activity of delivering messages until there is a behavior change (knowledge, attitudes, and skills) of message recipients/target communities; (2) extension is not just a transfer of technology, but it is a process of activities carried out between extension workers and target communities to solve problems faced by farmers; (3) extension is not just an activity that is partial and sporadic in the short term but is carried out as a whole with very long and continuous stages; (4) extension is not based on the mere interest of the extension worker but is based on the needs of the target community. Furthermore, the challenges of extension in the age of the COVID-19 epidemic are: (1) the low level of cosmopolitan farmers makes the information collected delayed; (2) farmers with all their constraints find it challenging to adjust to changes; and (3) the radius of confidence of farmers is minimal. Thus, the challenges of extension in the future are: (1) how to generate an entrepreneurial spirit for farmers; (2) the introduction of social media and web applications is mandatory as new media that extension workers should use; and (3) future extension services should be able to synergize conflicts of interest between stakeholders.


Acevedo-Osorio, Á 2020, Contributions of agrobiodiversity to the sustainability of family farming in Colombia. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 23(2). Retrieved from https://api.elsevier. com/content/ abstract/scopus_id/85091672085.
Andiyan, A & Cardiah, T 2021, Application of Contemporary Architecture in the Transfer Hub High Land Borobudur Building. Civil Engineering and Architecture, 9: 2353-2361. DOI: https://doi .org/10.13189/ cea.2021.090722.
Andiyan, A, Putra, RM, Rembulan, GD & Tannady, H 2021, Construction project evaluation using CPM-crashing, CPM-PERT and CCPM for minimize project delays. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1933(1), 12096, IOP Publishing.
Andiyan, A, Rusmana, D, Hari, Y, Sitorus, M, Trinova, Z & Surur, M 2021, Disruption of IoT in adapting online learning during the covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 13: 1331-1341. DOI:
Arnal, ÁJ 2018, Implementation of PEF treatment at real-scale tomatoes processing considering LCA methodology as an innovation strategy in the agri-food sector. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(4). DOI:
Assefa Woldemariam, G & Assefa Woldemariam, G 2021, Efforts, successes and challenges of green feed    production in Ethiopia. Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research, 11: 13-17. DOI:10.51227/ojafr.2021.3.
Blanco, CDP 2020, Water availability risk in agriculture: An application to guadalquivir and segura river basins. Estudios de Economia Aplicada, 29: 333-357. DOI:
Brenes, JA 2020, Decision support systems that use artificial intelligence for precision agriculture: A systematic literature mapping. Revista Iberica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informacao, 217-229. Retrieved from
Caicedo-López, LH 2021, Elicitors: Bioethical implications for agriculture and human health. Revista Bioetica, 29: 76-86. DOI:
Cardiah, T, Andiyan, A & Rahma, A 2021, Implementation of health protocols at mosques during the covid-19 pandemic in the city of Bukittinggi. Review Of International Geographical Education, 11: 3765-3771. DOI:
Cardoso, JdF, Casarotto Filho, N & Marcon, C 2020, Small business networks in the field of organic farming: Strategies and management tools. Gestao e Producao, 27, DOI:
Cervo, IB 2020, Wild boar diet and its implications on agriculture and biodiversity in brazilian forest–grassland ecoregions. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 43: 123-136.
Costa, E 2020, Greenhouses within the Agriculture 4.0 interface. Revista Ciencia Agronomica, 51(5). DOI:
Dayahna, M, Romero Riaño, E, Alexandra Espinosa M, Guerrero, CD 2020, Evaluating usability contributions in ICT-IOT solutions for agriculture: A bibliometric perspective. Revista Iberica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informacao, 681-692. Retrieved from
 DÍaz, M 2021, Environmental objectives of spanish agriculture: Scientific guidelines for their effective implementation under the common agricultural policy 2023-2030. Ardeola, 68: 445-460. DOI:
Haq, SU, Boz, I & Shahbaz, P 2020, Land tenure in tea farming and exploring factors influencing a rural household’s decision to exit or enter farming. Ciencia Rural, 50: 1-12. DOI:
Harun, SN 2021, An LCA-based environmental performance of rice production for developing a sustainable agri-food system in Malaysia. Environmental Management, 67: 146-161. DOI:
Laso, J 2018, Assessing energy and environmental efficiency of the Spanish agri-food system using the LCA/DEA methodology. Energies, 11(12). DOI:
Lima, GC 2020, Agro 4.0: Enabling agriculture digital transformation through IoT. Revista Ciencia Agronomica, 51(5). DOI:
Lozano-Povis, A 2021, Climate change in the Andes and its impact on agriculture: A systematic review. Scientia Agropecuaria, 12: 101-108. DOI:
Maas, L 2020a, Results of lack of policies to encourage urban organic farming: A case study in two Brazilian cities. Cadernos de Saude Publica, 36: 1-12. DOI:
Maas, L 2020b, Work in organic farming: An overview. Ciencia Rural, 50 (4). DOI:
McAuliffe, GA 2020, Applications of nutritional functional units in commodity-level life cycle assessment (LCA) of agri-food systems. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 25: 208-221. DOI:
Molin, JP 2020, Agricultura de precisão e as contribuições digitais para a gestão localizada das lavouras. Revista Ciencia Agronomica, 51: 1-10. DOI:
Moreno, JA 2021, Representation in the Spanish press of the role of animal agriculture in the climate crisis: Between lack of attention and carnism. Estudios Sobre El Mensaje Periodistico, 27: 349-364. DOI:
Nascimento, FSd, Calle-Collado, A & Muñoz Benito, R 2020, Social and solidarity economy and agroecology in family agriculture cooperatives in Brazil as a form of development of sustainable agriculture. CIRIEC-Espana Revista de Economia Publica, Social y Cooperativa, (98), 189-211. DOI:
Oliveira, MRRd, Ribeiro, SG, Mas, JF & Teixeira, AdS 2020, Advances in hyperspectral sensing in agriculture: A review. Revista Ciencia Agronomica, 51(5). DOI:
Orejuela, IP 2020, Gis techniques to cangahuosos soil recovery, for community agriculture purposes in the Ilaló. Ciencia Del Suelo, 38:  295-309. Retrieved from scopus_id/85097428540.
Ribeiro, MIB 2020, The use of information and communication technologies in agriculture: A bibliometric analysis. Atas Da Conferencia Da Associacao Portuguesa de Sistemas de Informacao, Vol. 2020. Retrieved from
Rouault, A 2020, Using LCA in a participatory eco-design approach in agriculture: The example of vineyard management. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 25: 1368-1383. DOI: 10.1007/s11367-019-01684-w.
Rufí-Salís, M 2021, Combining LCA and circularity assessments in complex production systems: The case of urban agriculture. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 166. DOI: j.resconrec.2020.105359.
Rusliyadi, M, Jamil, ABHM, Othman, M & Kumalasari, RT 2018, Agricultural extension policy, agricultural growth and poverty reduction in Indonesia. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7: 5539-5550.
Sánchez-Reinoso, AD 2020, Use of biochar in agriculture. Acta Biologica Colombiana, 25: 327-338. DOI:
Seleiman, MF 2020, Will novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic impact agriculture, food security and animal sectors? Bioscience Journal, 36: 1315-1326. DOI:
Sieverding, H 2020, A life cycle analysis (LCA) primer for the agricultural community. Agronomy Journal, 112: 3788-3807. DOI:
Souza, ABd 2020, Local foI od systems: Potential for new market connections for family farming. Ambiente e Sociedade, 23: 1-20. DOI:
Velasco-Jiménez, A 2020, Rhizospheric bacteria with potential benefits in agriculture. Terra Latinoamericana, 38: 343-355. DOI:
Villabona, Y 2018, Methodology for the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in combustion processes where the fuel is pelleted agricultural biomass. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 64: 427-432. DOI:
Wowra, K 2021, Nitrogen in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of agricultural crop production systems: Comparative analysis of regionalization approaches. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 763. DOI: