Quality control of industrial hemp seed products, varietal responsiveness of hemp seeds to bioregulator action

Document Type : Research Paper


Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Timiryazevskaya St. 49, Moscow


The article presents the data on the chemical composition of seeds and oil of industrial hemp four varieties of the Central Russian ecotype, registered for cultivation in Russia: Surskaya, Yuliana, Vera and Nadezhda. The largest weight of 1000 seeds was for the Surskaya variety (17.6 g), while the smallest for the Juliana variety (16.5 g). The content of lipids in seeds was 33 - 35%, while that of proteins was 22 - 25%, which makes it possible to use all four varieties in the food industry. On average, all varieties had a high seed oil yield of 29.9 - 32.2%. The maximum oil yield was observed in  Vera and Nadezhda (32.2 - 32.9%). A low content of all saturated fatty acids in the oil was noted for the hemp of Nadezhda (8.55%), while a higher content (91.5%) for other varieties. It was noted that, on average, the content of Omega-3 fatty acids was 19.5-21.1% in the oil of all studied varieties of industrial hemp. In the Surskaya and Vera, the content was 0.8-1.6% lower than in theYuliana and Nadezhda. The content of Omega-6 fatty acids in hemp oil was 57.5-58.9%, and there was no significant difference between the varieties. The content of Omega-9 was 11.6-12.8% on average. The Nadezhda in oil exhibited the decreased Omega-9 by 0.5-1.3% than the other varieties. Using scanning electron microscopy, the structure of the hemp seed was established, which has a dense, thickened shell with high strength. The structure of the seed shell is ribbed with pores for the embryo respiration. According to the total elemental composition, hemp seeds contained (in % of wt): carbon 48 - 49%, oxygen 45 - 48%, silicon 0.1 - 0.4%, calcium 0.3 - 4.7%, potassium 0.1 - 1.0%, magnesium 0.1 - 0.7%, sodium 0.1 - 0.2%, sulfur 0.1 - 0.3%, phosphorus 0.1 - 0.2%, chlorine less than 0.1 %. The membrane of the seed contains up to 4.7% of calcium and up to 1% of potassium, while the kernel of the seed contained no higher than 0.1 - 0.3% of these elements. For pre-sowing seed treatment, it is recommended to use the following preparations: Zircon  4 g ton-1, Epin-Extra  10 g ton-1, EcoFus  0.5 kg ton-1, and working fluid consumption  10 L ton-1. The drugs in laboratory studies have shown the effectiveness of action on germination energy and seed germination increase.


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