Breeding of spring turnip rape, Brassica rapa L. var. subsp.campestris (L.) A.R Clapham at All-Russian Research Institute of Oil Crops

Document Type : Research Paper


Federal Research Center "All-Russia Research Institute of Oil Crops by V.S. Pustovoit" (FRC VNIIMK)


Turnip rape, Brassica rapa L. var. sabsp. Campestris (L.) A.R.Clapham belongs to the large cabbage family (Brassicacea). Spring turnip rape among other oilseeds of the Brassicacea family occupies an important place and can be highly productive in the Northern regions of the European part, in the arid zones of the Lower Volga region, in the northern forest-steppe and subtaiga regions of Western and Eastern Siberia, where the longer growing season sometimes hinders rapeseed to achieve its full potential. Spring turnip rape ripens 13-15 days earlier than rapeseed; it is less heat- and drought-sensitive. However, interest in industrial cultivation of spring turnip rape appeared in the 70s of the last century after the creation of non-erucic and low-glucosinolate varieties, with the oil equivalent to olive oil in its fatty acid composition. Spring turnip rape has been bred at V.S. Pustovoyt All-Russian Research Institute of Oils Crops (VNIIMK) since 1982. The yellow-seeded varieties, Vostochnaya, Yantarnaya, and Zolotistaya, were created. The objective of this research was to find a  new promising breeding material for creating varieties of 000-type spring turnip rape from heterogeneous populations of the available VNIIMK varieties. To obtain a new source material, we used the pedigree method, followed by an assessment of the progeny of elite plants isolated from Yantarnaya and Zolotistaya. The result of our six-year efforts was four new promising samples No. 815, 844, 816, and 820, which exceed the standard variety, Zolotistaya, in seed yield by 10-14%. The oil content of seeds of the isolated samples varied from 47.8 to 48.6%, and exceeded the standard variety by 0.3–0.7% in three of them. Promising cultivars either had the same or lower weight of 1000 seeds (2.4-3.0 g), in comparison with Zolotistaya. All selected samples of turnip rape were characterized by a low glucosinolate content in seeds – 13.5–14.5 μmol g-1, and the fatty acid composition corresponded to the requirements for high-quality salad oils with erucic acid levels of 0.04–0.20% and a high content of oleic acid – 65.8–67.4%. After additional assessment, the best variety will be submitted for the State test.


Buiankin, VI, Fedorova, VM 2007, Prospects for the growing of turnip rape and rape in the Lower Volga region. Oils and Fats, 7: 12-14.
Dospekhov, AB 1973, Field experiment technique. Moscow, Russia, 336 p.
Downey, RK, Klassen,  AJ 1974, Torch summer turnip rape. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 54: 435.
Daun, JK & DeClercq, DR 1986, Quality of yellow and dark seeds in Brassica campestris canola varieties Candle and Tobin. Journal of The American Oil Chemistis Society, 65: 122-126.
Jönsson, R 1978, Yellow-seeded rape and turnip rape. II. Breeding for improved quality of oil and meal in yellow seeded materials. Hereditas, 87:  205-218,
Gorkovenko, LG, Osepchuk, DV 2011, The use of rape and its processed products in feeding pigs and poultry. Monograph, Krasnodar, Russia.
Khalilova, LA 2002, The original breeding material for yellow-seeded spring rape. Author’s abstract of Candidate of Biology, Krasnodar, Russia, 137 p.
Kuznetsova, GN, Poliakova, RS 2019, Breeding of spring turnip rape in Western Siberia. Russian Agricultural Science, 3: 19-21.
Lukomets,VM 2010, Methods of field agrotechnical experiments with oil crops, Krasnodar, Russia, 327 p.
Nonda, R, Bhargava, SC, Tomar, DPS, Rowson, HM 1996, Phenological development of Brassica campestris, B. juncea, B. napus and B. carinata grown in controlled environments and from 14 sowing dates in the field. Field Crops Research,  46(1-3): 93-103 DOI: 10.1016/0378-4290(95)00090-9.
Peltonen-Sainio, P, Jauhiainen, L, Hannukkala, A 2007, Declining rapeseed yields in Finland: How, why and what next? Journal of Agricultural Science, 145: 587-598, DOI: 10.1017/S0021859607007381.
Peltonen-Sainio, P, Jauhiainen, L, Venalainen, A 2009, Comparing regional risks in producing turnip rape and oilseed – Today in light of long-term datasets. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B – Soil and Plant Science, 59: 118-128, DOI: 10.1080/09064710802022887.
Peltonen-Sainio, P, Hakala, K, Jauhiainen, L, Ruosteenoja, K 2009, Comparing regional risks in producing turnip rape and oilseed – Impacts of climate change and breeding. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B – Soil and Plant Science, 59:129-138, DOI:10.1080/09064710802022895.
Rakow, G 2004, Species origin and economic importance of Brassica. In: EC, Pua, & CJ, Douglas (Eds.) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry. 54, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag: 3-11.
Shpota, VI, Bochkareva, EB 1986, On the breeding of spring turnip rape. Oil crops. Scientific and Technical Bulletin of ARRIOC, 6: 28-29.
Sinam, G, Kuram, Mishra, R, Mallick, S, Sinha, S 2015, Assessing the scope of growing Brassica campestris L. in soil spiked with arsenic, chromium and copper: Effect on growth, antioxidants and oil yield, International Journal of Plant Biology & Research, 3: 1045:1-9.
Volovik, VT, Novoselov, IuK, Kosolapov, VM, Rudoman, VV, Medvedeva, SE 2012, Spring turnip rape growing technology in the Non-Chernozem Zone of Russia. Moscow, Russia.
Wong, A, Zhou, G, Lin, C, Wang, B 2017, Genetic diversity stady of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino based on ISSR markers. Internatinal Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics, 70: 48-54, 1259289.