Removal of toxic textile dyes from aqueous solution through adsorption onto coconut husk waste: Thermodynamic and isotherm studies

Document Type : Research Paper


1 College of science -Chemistry Department/University of Kufa-Iraq

2 Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences for Girls, University of Babylon, Hilla, Iraq

3 Al-Hilla college university/Iraq


In this research, activated carbon (coconut husk waste) is prepared using sulfuric acid activation from coconut husk waste which is a cheap material that shows agreed scavenging actions by adsorption for eliminating the toxic textile dyes (methylene blue MB, crystal violet CV, as well as Brilliant Blue BB) from the aqueous solutions. In a shaker water bath, different physio-chemical factors like contact time, adsorbent dose, pH, temperature of the dye solution and initial concentration of the dye have been measured and the adsorption time is 120 minutes. The results show that adsorption of MB, CV is favorable at a high pH value, but at acidic pH, the brilliant blue BB dye is favorable. The activated carbon thermodynamic analysis is conducted using three dyes: The Gibbs free energy, entropy and also enthalpy. According to the results, the adsorption is a Physical (endothermic). It is also found that the activated carbon is regulated by the equations of Freundlich and Temkin. Finally, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) have been used to show adsorption.   



Albadarin AB, Solomon S, Daher MA, Walker, G 2018, Efficient removal of anionic and cationic dyes from aqueous systems using spent Yerba Mate “Ilex paraguariensis”, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 82: 144-155.
Adeyemo, AA, Adeoye, IO & Bello, OS 2017, Adsorption of dyes using different types of clay: A review. Applied Water Science, 7: 543-568.
Aksakal, HU 2010, Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of textile dye (Reactive Red 195) onto Pinus sylvestris L. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 181: 666-672.
Al-Hayder, LSJ & Al-Hussainawy, MK 2016, A kinetics study of E. coli and S. aureus adsorption on cross-linked hydrogels, International Journal of ChemTech Research, 9: 334-337.
Aljeboree, AM & Alshirifi, AN 2001, Oxidative coupling of Amoxicillin using 4-Aminoantipyrine: Stability and higher sensitivity. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2019, 1294(5): p. 05.
Aljeboree, AM, Alshirifi Abbas N, 2012, Effect of Different Parameters on the Adsorption of Textile Dye Maxilon Blue GRL from Aqueous Solution by Using White Marble. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 24: 5813-5816.
Aljeboree, AM, 2015, Adsorption of methylene blue dye by using modified Fe/Attapulgite clay, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 6: 778.
Aljeboree, AM, Mohammed HYA-G, Said, HA & Alkaim, F 2019, The effect of different parameters on the removal of vitamin B12 drug (as a model biochemical pollutants) by AC/clay. Biochemical and  Cellular  Archive, 19: 755-759.
Aljeboree, AM, Hussein, FH, & Alkaim, AF 2019, Removal of textile dye (methylene blue MB) from aqueous solution by activated carbon as a model (corn-cob source waste of plant): As a model of environmental enhancement. Plant Archives, 19: 906-909.
Aljeboree, AM 2016, Adsorption of crystal violet dye by Fugas Sawdust from aqueous solution. International Journal of Chem Tech Research, 9: 412-423.
Aljeboree, AM & Alshirifi, AN 2018, Colorimetric determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride drug using 4-Aminoantipyrine: Stability and higher sensitivity. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 10:  1774-1779.
Aljeboree, AM 2019, Adsorption and removal of pharmaceutical Riboflavin (RF) by rice husks activated carbon. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 11: 255-261.
Aljeboree, AM 2019, Removal of pharmaceutical (paracetamol) by using CNT/TiO2 Nanoparticles? Journal of Global Pharma Technology, 11: 199-205.
Aljeboree, AM & Alkaim, AF 2019, Role of plant wastes as an ecofriendly for pollutants (Crystal Violet dye) removal from aqueous solutions. Plant Archives, 19: 902-905.
Aljeboree, AM,  Alshirifi, AN & Alkaim, AF 2020, Highly efficient removal of textile dye DIRECT YELLOW (DY12) dyes” from aqueous systems using coconut shell as a waste plants. Plant Archives, 20: 3029-3038.
Aljeboree, AM,  Ayad, ANA & Alkaim,  F 2020, Removal of textile dyes form aqueous solutions by using coconut as a source of activated carbon: as a model of equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. Plant Archives, 20:  3187-3195.
Askari, F, Davoodi, M, Ghelichli, M, Asadi, I, Jazideh, F 2020, The preventive effects of silymarine extract against Streptococcus mutans virulence and caries development in rat model and in vitro condition. Eurasian Chemical Communications, 2: 1164-1171.
Attia, AA, Girgis, BS & Fathy, NA 2008, Removal of methylene blue by carbons derived from peach stones by H3PO4 activation: Batch and column studies. Dyes and Pigments, 76:  282-289.
Baghernejad, B, Fiuzat, M 2021, Ninhydrin as a novel and efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 2-amino-4H-Pyran derivatives in aqueous media using, Journal of Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 1: 17-21.
Cazetta, AL, Vargas, AM, Nogami, EM, Kunita, MH, Guilherme, MR, Martins, AC, Silva, TL, Moraes & JG, Almeida, VC 2011, NaOH-activated carbon of high surface area produced from coconut shell: Kinetics and equilibrium studies from the methylene blue adsorption.  Chemical Engineering Journal, 174: 117-125.
Delavari, S, Mohammadi Nik, H, Mohammadi, N, Samimi, A, Zolfegharifar, SY, Antalovits F, Niedzwiecki, L & Mesbah, R, 2021, Optimization of operating conditions for CO hydrogenation to hydrocarbon via Response Surface Method. Chemical Methodologies, 5: 178-189.
Ehsan, HNB, Iqbal, M & Noreen Native, S2017, Acidic pre-treated and composite clay efficiency for the adsorption of dicationic dye in aqueous medium, Water Science and Technology, 75: 753-764.
Fabryanty, R, C,, Valencia, F, EdiSoetaredjo, J, NyooPutro, S, Permatasari Santoso, A, Kurniawan, Y-H, Ju, S, Ismadji 2017, Removal of crystal violet dye by adsorption using bentonite – alginate composite. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5: 5677–5687.
Gecgel, U 2012, Adsorption of Remazol Brilliant Blue R on activated carbon prepared from a pine cone. Natural Product Research, 26: 659-664.
Hayati, NMM2012,Modification of activated carbon by the alkaline treatmentto remove the dyes from wastewater: mechanism, isotherm and kinetic, Desalination and  Water Treatment, 47: 322-333.
Karim, AN & Jasim, LS 2019, Synthesis and characterization of poly (CH/AA-co-AM) composite: Adsorption and thermodynamic studies of benzocaine from aqueous solutions, International Journal of Drug Delivery Technology, 9: 558-562.
Langmuir, I 1918, The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 40: 1361-1403.
Radhy, ND & Jasim, LS 2019, Synthesis of Graphene oxide/hydrogel composites and their ability for efficient adsorption of Crystal Violet. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research,  11: 456-463.
Sadeghi, S & Nasehi, Z 2019, Simultaneous determination of Brilliant Green and Crystal Violet dyes in fish and water samples with dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction using ionic liquid followed by zero crossing first derivative spectrophotometric analysis method. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 201: 134-142.
Saeed, MS &  Iqbal, M 2010,Application potential of grapefruit peel as dye sorbent: Kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of crystal violet adsorption. Journal of Hazardous Materials,179: 564-572.
Sajjadi, A & Moosavi, SM 2018, Synthesis of polymer-coated RDX/AP nano-composites using supercritical CO2Journal of Medicinal and Chemical Sciences, 1: 9-10.
Saleh, M, Yalvaç, M, & Arslan, H 2019, Optimization of remazol brilliant blue R adsorption onto Xanthium italicum using the response surface method, Karbala International Journal of Modern Science, 5(1), DOI: 10.33640/2405-609X.1017
 Zaied,  A Mosaa, ATB, Aljeboree, AM, & Alkaim, AF 2019, Adsorption and removal of textile dye (methylene blue MB) from aqueous solution by activated carbon as a model (apricot stone source waste) of plant role in environmental enhancement. Plant Archives, 19:  910-914.