Environmental consequences of firing technologies evolution in ceramics

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Design and National Arts, IFMK, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

2 Department of Architectural and Building Structures, SPbGASU, St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Engineering, St. Petersburg, Russia

3 Department of Design and National Arts, IPMK, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

4 Department of Radiophotonics and Microwave Technologies, KNRTU-KAI, Kazan National Research Technical University, Kazan, Russia


Technical ceramics are one of the numerous materials, including metals, glass, and plastics that can be utilized to preserve and protect the environment and also contribute to regenerate damaged ecosystems. This article examines the historical development of pottery, focusing mainly on the organization of the technological process of firing ceramic products as well as its environmental consequences. To obtain durable ceramic products, it was necessary to improve the design of the kiln and increase the firing temperature, which led to the appearance of specialized kilns. For a long time, firewood and coal were the fuels used for firing. Then, as humankind's mastery of the natural environment progressed, fuels in the form of liquid and gas were used in pottery kilns. Today, the advent of electric heating elements has made it possible to simplify the firing even further; the thermoregulation equipment of modern kilns allows potters to maintain a stable temperature throughout the firing process, leading to the increased quality of the final product. The results of this study will provide a complete picture of the various types of ceramic kilns found throughout history, considering relevant environmental issues. It will help to trace how the quality of ceramic products has been influenced by the design of the kilns and the increase in firing temperature while maintaining the damage to the environment to a minimum. This will be of interest both to professional and amateur potters, who may find it useful during the firing process.


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