Effects of ecological condition on seed germination of horizontal cypress in Hyrcanian forests

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Horticulture, Agricultural Faculty Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Caspian Forest Tree Seed Center, Forest Rangelands and Watershed Organization, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran


Horizontal cypress is an endemic conifer species of Hyrcanian forest which grows in special sites with Mediterranean climate in this area. The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation, seed source, growing media, and sowing time on seed germination of horizontal cypress in the Pilembera nursery located in West Guilan Province. The seeds were collected from three different seed sources in west (Roodbar), middle (Hassanabad), and east (Aliabad) of Hyrcanian forests. Seeds were sown in two different times (February and March) in four soil compositions (different combinations of soil, manure, and sand), irrigated by three different periods (every day, every three days, every five days), in a complete randomized block designs. The results showed maximum seed germination and highest seedlings height in Hassanabad and Aliabad which were sown in March in pots containing soil mixed with manure, irrigated every day.  According to the results, successful seedling production of horizontal cypress is highly depends on seed origins and seed sowing time.


Alvaninejad, S, Taari, M, Espahbodi, K, Taghavei, M & Hamzepour, M 2010, Morphology and germination characteristics of Quercus brantii Lindl. Acorns in nursery. Iranian Journal of Forest & Poplar Research, 17: 523-533 (In Persian).
Barbour, J, Holston, K, Eckhart, R, Parresol, BR & Pharo, J 2001, Temperature effect on longleaf pine seed germination at a container nursery. USDA Forest Service, 4 p.
Boyerr, JN & South, D 2004, Date of sowing and emergence timing affect growth and development of loblolly pine seedlings. New Forests, 231: 253- 271.
Brady, NC & Weil RR 1990, The nature and properties of soils. 12th ed., Prentice Hallˏ Upper Saddle River, NJ, (Vol. 13, pp. 662-710)
Brisette, JC & Chamber, JL 1992, Leaf water status & root system water flux of short leaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seedlings in relation to new growth after transplanting. Tree Physiology, 11: 289-303.
Brito, JMC, Lopes, R, Machado, AMV, Guerrero, CAC, Faleiro, L & Beltrao, J 2007, Sewage sludge as a horticultural substrate. Biomedical and Life Sciences, 86: 205-286.
Chauhanˏ Sˏ Negiˏ AK & Todariaˏ NP 1996ˏ Effect of provenance variation and temperature on seed germination of Alnus nepalensis. Plant physiology & Biochemistry, 23: 94-95.
Driessche, VR, Rudo, W, Martens, L 2004, Effect of fertilization and irrigation on growth of aspen (Populus termuloides), Forest Ecology & Management, 186: 381-389.
Espahbodi, K, Mirzaie – Nodoushan, H, Tabari, M, Akbarinia, M & Dehghan Shooraki, Y 2006, Effect of seed source altitude in wild service treeˏ on seed germination. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 59: 103-112 (In Persian).
Fotelli, MNR, Aadoglou, KM & Constantinidou, HIA 2000, Water stress of seedlings of four Mediterranean Oak species. Tree Physiology, 20: 1065-1075.
Gautam, MK, Mead, DJ, Clinton, PW & Change, SX 2003, Biomass and morphology of Pinus radiata coarse root components in a sub-humid temperate silvo-pastoral system. Forest Ecology & Management, 177: 387- 397.
Gholami, SH 2007, The effect of weeding, depth and sowing date seed to the growth of pistachio seedlings in nursery. Iranian Journal of Research & Construction, 75: 71-80 (in Persian).
Harrington, J 1972, Seed and longevity, In TT Kozlowski (Ed), Seed Biology, Academic Press, New York. Vol. III, 145-245.
Harrington, JT, Loveall, MW & Kirksey, RE 2003, Establishment and early growth of dryland plantings of Arizona cypress in New Mexico, USA Agroforestry Systems, 63: 183- 192.
Heydari, A, Mattaji, A, Kia-daliri, H & Shabanian, N 2011, Effect of planting depth and time on seeds germination of Manna oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 19:128-140 (in Persian).
Heydari, M, Shahryari, H, Mirzaei, J & Pothier, D 2016, The effect of seed pre-soaking, burial depth and site conditions on the survival and growth of wild almond (Amygdalus scoparia). Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 14: 239-251.
Isik, K 1986, Altitudinal variation in Pinus brutia Tenˏ seed and seedling characteristics. Silvae Genetica, 35: 2-3.
Jink, R, Backer C & Nilloughby, I 2006, Direct seeding of Ash and Sycamore: The effects of sowing date, pre-emergent herbicides, cultivation and protection on seedling emergence and survival. Forest Ecology & Management, 237: 373-386.
Jocobs, DF, Salifu, KF & Seifert, JR 2005, Growth and nutritional response of hardwood seedlings to controlled-release fertilization at out planting. Forest Ecology Management, 214: 28-39.
Johnson, JD 1990, Dry matter partitioning in lobolly and slash pines: Effects of fertilization & irrigation. Forest Ecology & Management, 30: 147-157.
Khademi, A, Adeli, E, Babaei, S & Mattaji, A 2005, Study of afforestation (Khojin Forest park & Hiroabad) in Khalkhal area & present adaptable species. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Islamic Azad University. 11: 59-69 (in Persian).
Khan, ML 2003, Effect of seed mass on seedling success in Artocarpus heterophyllus L. a tropical tree species of north- east India. Acta Oecologia, 25: 103-110.
Khasa, DP, Fung, M & Logan, B 2005, Early growth response of container- grown selected woody boreal seedlings in amended composite tailings and tailings sand. Bioresources Technology, 96: 857-864.
Kiani, B 1999, Study the rooting of seedlings Pinus taeda in the Conditions of bare root and pot. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 58: 333-338 (In Persian).
Landsberg, JJ & Gower, ST 1997, Applications of physiological ecology to forest management. In: HA, Mooney (Ed.), Academic Press, USA. 354 p.
Lavendar, DP 1984, Plant physiology and nursery environment: Interactions affecting seedling growth. In: Forest nursery manual: Production of bare root seedlings. Springer, Dordrecht, 133-141.
Luoranen, J, Rikala, R, Konttinen, KS, Smolander, H 2006, Summer planting of Picea abies container-grown seedlings: Effects of planting date on survival, height growth and root egress. Forest Ecology & Management, 237: 534-544.
Malakouti, MJ & Homaei, M 2004, Soil fertility of Arid and Semi-arid Regions (Difficulties & Solutions)ˏ Tarbiat Modares University Press, Tehran, Iran, 482 p. (in Persian).
McCreary, DD 1990, Acorn sowing date affects field performance of Blue& valley oak CA. Tree Planters Notes, 41: 6-9.
Morris, MH, Negreros-Castillo, P & Mize, C 2000, Sowing date, shade and irrigation affect bigleaf mahagony (Swietenia macrophylla King). Forest Ecology & Management, 132: 173-181.
Mossadegh, A 1996, Silviculture. University of Tehran Press, 481 p. (in Persian).
Nagakura, J, Shigenaga, HA & Takahashi, M 2004, Effects of simulated drought stress on the fine roots of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) in a plantation forest on the Kanto Plain, eastern Japan. Journal of forest Research, 12: 143-151.
Nambiar, EKS & Fife, DN 2007, Growth and nutrient re-translocation in needles of radiate pine in relation to nitrogen supply. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60: 147-156.
Navarro, RM, Retamosa, MJ, Lopez, J, Campo, AD, Ceaceros, C & Salmoral, L 2006, Nursery practices and field performance for the endangered Mediterranean species Abies pinsapo Boiss. Journal of Ecological Enginiering, 27: 93-99.
Oliet, AJ, Planelles, R, Artero, F & Jacobs, FD 2005, Nursery fertilization and tree shelters affect Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Pathology, 48: 77-82.
Ranal, MA & Santana, DG 2006, How and why to measure the germination process? Revista Brasileira de Botanica, 29: 1-11.
Sheikh, AH & Abdul, MMD 2007, Seed morphology & germination studies of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at nursery stage in Bangladesh. Journal of Agriculture & Biological Sciences, 3: 35-39.
Shibu, ME, Leffelaar, PA, Van Keulen, H & Aggarwal, PK 2006, Quantitative description of soil organic matter dynamics- A review of approaches with reference to rice-based cropping systems, Geoderma, 137: 1–18.
Soltani, A, 2011, Seed germination response of Haloxylon persicum (Chenopodiaceae) to different hydrothermal conditions and sand burial depths. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 9: 211-221.
Soofizadeh, N, Hoseini, SM & Tabari, M 2009, Effect of sowing date, irrigation and weed control on biomass, ratio of shoot/root length and vitality rate of Cupressus arizonica seedling in nursery. Iranian Journal of Forest, 1: 163-173 (in Persian).
Tabandeh, A, Tabari, M, Espahbodi, K & Mirzaie Nodoushan, H 2007, Seed Sources effects on seedling growth of wild service tree in 3rd year after planting. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi, 76: 48- 53 (In Persian).
Tabari, M, Poormajidian, MR & Alizadeh, AR 2004, Effect of soil, irrigation and weeding on production of cypress (cupressus sempervirens L.) seeding in Shahrposht nursery, Nowshahr. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi, 70: 65-69 (In Persian).
Thompson, BE 1984, Establishing a vigorous nursery crop: bed preparation, seed sowing and early seed growth. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State Universityˏ Martines Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publisher, 41-49.
Todaria, NP & Negi, AK 1995, Effect of elevation and temperature on seed germination of some Himalayan tree species. Plant Physiology & Biochemistry, 22: 178–182.
Ungar, LA 1996, Effect of salinity on seed germinationˏ growth and ion accumulation of Atriplex patula (Chenopodiaceae). American Journal of Botany, 83: 604-607.
Vines, RA 1960, Trees, shrubs and woody vines of the southest Austin, University of Texas Press, 1104 p.
Yosef-zade, H, Espahbodi, K, Tabari, M & Jalali, Gh 2007, Study of seed germination and production efficiency of maple seedlings (Acer velutinum Bioss.) collected from 11 sites in the Mazandaran forests. Journal of Crop Production & Processing, 40: 465-470.