Disinfection of total coliform bacteria in Falaj water by solar water disinfection (SODIS)

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman

2 Department of Chemical and petrochemical Engineering, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman

10.22124/cjes.2019.3802

Abstract

In this study an attempt has been made to disinfect total coliform bacteria present in Falaj water using solar water disinfection (SODIS) technology. SODIS experiments were conducted in winter (February 2018) and summer (May 2018) using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles (less, thin and thick plastic PETs) and the glass ones of different capacities (0.5, 1 and 1.5 L). The results showed that total coliform disinfection rate in May was two folds greater than that in February. Water depth or volume of sample in the bottle had significant effect on the efficiency of SODIS. Highest disinfection rate was found on the samples collected from water depth of 6 cm (0.5 L), while the lowest was observed on samples of 8 cm in depth (1.5 L). No significant difference was observed in disinfecting total coliform between glass and less plastic PET bottle for shorter exposure periods (1 h).  Results of this research have proved SODIS as anappropriate household water treatment and safe storage for disinfecting Falaj water in Oman. This study is a step forward in Oman to employ solar energy in the water and wastewater treatments.

Keywords


Abdel Rahmnn, H & Omezzine, A 1996, Aflaj water resources management: Tradable water rights to improve irrigation productivity in Oman. Water International, 21: 70-75.

Al-Kalbani, M, Price, M, Ahmed, M, Abahussain, A & O’Higgins, T 2016, Water quality assessment of Aflaj in the Mountains of Oman.  Environment and Natural Resources Research, 6: 99-114.

Al-Marshudi, A 2001, Traditional irrigated agriculture in Oman. Water International, 26: 259-264.

Al-Marshudi, A 2007, The falaj irrigation system and water allocation markets in Northern Oman. Agricultural Water Management, 91: 71-77.

Asiimwe, J, Quilty, B, Muyanja, C & McGuigan, K  2013, Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions,  Journal of Water and Health, 11: 729-737.

Ayoub, G & Malaeb, L 2019, Solar water disinfection: UV radiation transmittance of various solar reactor tubes, Energy Procedia, 157: 498-511.

Dessie, A, Alemayehu, E, Mekonen, S, Legesse, W, Kloos, H & Ambelu, A  2014, Solar disinfection: an approach for low-cost household water treatment technology in Southwestern Ethiopia,  Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 12: 1-6.

Fairouz Megdiche-Kharrat, Mohamed Moussa & Hichem Rejeb 2017, 'Aflaj’ water management in Oman: The Case of Falaj Al-Khatmeen in Birkat Al-Mouz, Wilayat Nizwa', in M. Ouessar et al. (eds.), Water and land

security in dry lands, Springer International Publishing, AG.

Gelover, S, Gómez, L, Reyes, K & Teresa Leal, M  2006, A practical demonstration of water disinfection using TiO2 films and sunlight. Water Research, 40: 3274-3280.

Gómez-Couso, H, Fontán-Saínz, M, Sichel, C, Fernández-Ibáñez, P & Ares-Mazás, E  2009, Efficacy of the solar water disinfection method in turbid waters experimentally contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvumoocysts under real field conditions, Tropical Medicine and International Health, 14: 620-627.

Kehoe, S 2001, Effect of agitation, turbidity, aluminum foil reflectors and container volume on the disinfection efficiency of batch-process solar disinfectors, Water Research, 35: 1061-1065.

McGuigan, K, Conroy, R, Mosler, H, Preez, M, Ubomba-Jaswa, E & Fernandez-Ibañez, P 2012, Solar water disinfection (SODIS): A review from bench-top to roof-top, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 235-236: 29-46.

Mcguigan, K, Joyce, T & Conroy, R 1999, Solar disinfection: Use of sunlight to decontaminate drinking water in developing countries,  Journal of Medical Microbiology, 48: 785-787.

Norman, WR, Shayya, WH, Al-Ghafri, AS & McCann, IR 1998, Aflaj irrigation and on-farm water management in northern Oman, Irrigation and Drainage System, 12: 35-48.

Oates, P, Shanahan, P & Polz, M 2003, Solar disinfection (SODIS): Simulation of solar radiation for global assessment and application for point-of-use water treatment in Haiti, Water Research, 37: 47-54.

Samuel Luzi, Monika Tobler, Fabian Suter & Regula Meierhofer 2016, SODIS manual: Guidance on solar water disinfection, Eawag, Switzerland,

Sichel, C, Fernández-Ibáñez, P, de Cara, M & Tello, J  2009, Lethal synergy of solar UV-radiation and H2O2 on wild Fusarium solani spores in distilled and natural well water, Water Research, 43: 1841-1850.

Sommer, B, Marino, A, Solarte, Y, Salas, M, Dierolf, C, Valiente, C, Mora, D, Rechsteiner, R,   Setter, P & Wirojanagud, W 1997, SODIS- An emerging water treatment process. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – AQUA, 46: 127–137.

Whitlam, GC & Codd, GA 1986, Damage to micro-organisms by light, Special Publication of the Society of General Microbiology, 17: 129-69.

Woodhead, A 1987, Understanding UV solar-UV actions on living cells. Jagger John, BioScience, 37: 737-737.

World Health Organization (WHO) 1993, Guidelines for drinking water quality, 2nd ed., Vol. 1, Geneva.

Yaqoub Al Harthi, Natiq joodi, Satya Narayana, SV 2015, Water quality analysis of falaj daris at Nizwa area- A case study,International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 2: 302-305.

Zekri, S & Al-Marshudi, A 2008, A millenarian water rights system and water markets in Oman, Water International, 33: 350-360.

Zoubeida Tayara 2015, Integrated Water Management for Aflaj System in Oman —Different approach,  Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A, 5: 811-823.