Flora, life forms and chorology of plant species in the Deh-Kohneh Forest in Sepidan, Fars Province, Iran

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 University of Guilan

2 Research Institute of forests and Rangelands of Iran

Abstract

A forest area in Deh-Kohneh, the northwest of Fars Province, Iran was studied from a floristic and ecological point of view. The species were classified according to their growth habit. Raunkiaer’s life - forms systemwere used to characterize the flora of the study area. The location has a surface area of 466 ha by minimum altitude at 2100m and maximum at 2554m, between 30 ° 21΄ 32˝ to 30° 23΄ 00˝north longitudes and 51° 46΄ 35˝ to 51° 49΄ 41˝ east latitudes. The results showed that the flora of this region include 97 species belonging to 79 genera and 25 families. The main families in this area were Poaceae (18 species), Rosaceae (11 species) and Apiaceae (10 species). Raunkiaer’s life- forms showed that hemicryptophytes (53.6% of the species), phanerophytes (14.4%), therophytes (10.3%) and chamaephytes (8.2%) are the dominant life - forms of the area. The chorological studies indicated that all of species belong to Irano - Turanian zone, while 4% were common species in the Irano-Turanian and Hyrcanian zones.

Keywords


[Research]

 

Flora, life forms and chorology of plant species in the Deh-Kohneh Forest in Sepidan, Fars Province, Iran

 

M.R. Negahdarsaber1*, K. Taheri Abkenar1, H. Pourbabaei1, Kh. Sagheb-Talebi2

 

1- Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.

2- Department of Forestry, Research Institute of forests and Rangelands of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

 

* Corresponding author’s E-mail: Sabersiamak@gmail.com

(Received: May. 04. 2016 Accepted: Oct. 19. 2016)

ABSTRACT

A forest area in Deh-Kohneh, the northwest of Fars Province, Iran was studied from a floristic and ecological point of view. The species were classified according to their growth habit. Raunkiaer’s life - forms systemwere used to characterize the flora of the study area. The location has a surface area of 466 ha by minimum altitude at 2100m and maximum at 2554m, between 30 ° 21΄ 32˝ to 30° 23΄ 00˝north longitudes and 51° 46΄ 35˝ to 51° 49΄ 41˝ east latitudes. The results showed that the flora of this region include 97 species belonging to 79 genera and 25 families. The main families in this area were Poaceae (18 species), Rosaceae (11 species) and Apiaceae (10 species). Raunkiaer’s life- forms showed that hemicryptophytes (53.6% of the species), phanerophytes (14.4%), therophytes (10.3%) and chamaephytes (8.2%) are the dominant life - forms of the area. The chorological studies indicated that all of species belong to Irano - Turanian zone, while 4% were common species in the Irano-Turanian and Hyrcanian zones.

Key words:Vegetation, Distribution, Irano-Turanian zone, Zagros, Iran.


INTRODUCTION

Vegetation of an area, in fact, is the advantage of interactions between biological communities and environmental conditions and also, is in direct relation with evolution of plants species and geographical conditions during the past ages (Ghanbarian et al. 2011). Identification of plants in both applied and scientific aspects have a great role in attention to the importance of vegetation in environmental science, so that we can well understand, utilize and protect the environment. Thus, scientific classification of plants were employed (Vaseghi et al. 2007). Furthermore, with respect to the environmental turbulences like global warming and climate changes which change the number of plant species, we could realize the importance floristic studies in all regions. Also, study on chorology and life - forms of vegetation help us to protect and manage all genetic resources. Raunkiaer’s life-forms system was used to characterize the flora of the area. Plant species and individuals can be grouped into different life-forms classes based on structural and functional similarities (Muller-Dombois & Ellenberg 1974). Life-forms have close relationships with environmental factors and can be viewed as strategies for obtaining resources (Crosswhite & Crosswhite 1984; Cody 1986). Raunchier (1934) proposed a life- form classification system based on the manner in which plants protect their perennating buds during unfavorable seasons. According to this classification system, plant species can be grouped into five main classes: phanerophytes, chamaephytes, hemicryptophytes, cryptophytes and therophytes. This sequence corresponds to an increasing protection of the perennating buds. Climatic types can be characterized by the prevailing life form in plant communities growing under a given climatic regime, using the proportions of species in each life- form class, or the biological spectrum (Raunkiaer1934; Cain 1950; Muller-Dombois &Ellenberg 1974). Few studies have been devoted to the structure and flora of the herbaceous layer in plant communities of Fars Province (Ghahraman1996; Ghanbarian et al. 2011; Taiebikhorami et al. 2007; Khalili et al. 2007; Khodagholi et al. 2008; Dashtakian et al. 2002). In the present study, species were classified according to their growth habit followed using Raunkiaer’s life-forms system to characterize the flora of the Deh-Kohneh forest in Sepidan, Fars Province, Iran.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The present study was carried out in the Deh-Kohneh forest, an enclosed area with 466 ha, in Sepidan, the northwest of Fars Province, Iran. The area as a genetic storage of wild pear species, located between 30 ° 21΄ 32˝ to 30° 23΄ 00˝north latitude and 51° 46΄ 35˝ to 51° 49΄ 41˝ east longitude. The minimum and maximum altitude is 2100m and 2554m,   respectively. This region has northern aspect and the slope is moderate (20%) to high (80%) (Averaged 40%) (Negahdarsaber, 1990). The hottest month is August with the average temperature of 20.8 ºC, while the coldest month, January, has the average temperature of -14.8 ºC. The range of annual average temperature in the study area is 9 to 15 ºC, while the annual precipitation ranged from 630 to 1050mm. The dry season is started from beginning of May through October (seven months). Geologically, part of Zagros Folded Belt has been formed as the result of the collision between Arabic and Eurasia plates. Sarvak formation is the main geological formation of the study area.  Asmari-Jahrom and Pabde -Gurpi are dominated formations in this region respectively. These formation resulted in carbonates soil (generates from calcareous parent material) in all of the specimens (Hamzehpour et al. 2010).

To study the area from a floristic and ecological point of view, specimens were collected in several field trips during the spring and summer 2015. Specimens were identified according to the common references (Boisser1870; Rechinger 1963; Townsend 1966; Zohary1973; Davis 1975).

Data was organized listing the species, their families, life-form and chorology.

Observations were made on aerial shoot reduction during unfavourably dry conditions and presence of underground storage organs. Species were classified as phanerophytes, chamaephytes, hemicrypt-ophytes, cryptophytes and therophytes according to the Raunkiaer method. We computed the proportion of species in each life - form class.

 


 

 

Iran

 
 

Fig. 1. Location of the study area.

 

 

 

 

 

RESULTS

In the study area, 97 species were recorded belonging to 79 genera and 25 families (Table 1). The families with the highest number of species werePoaceae(18 species), Rosaceae (11 species) and Apiaceae (10 species). Nine families were represented by only a single species. The results showed that hemicryptophytes (53.6% of species), phanerophytes (14.4%), therophytes (10.3%) and chamaephytes (8.2%) are the dominant life forms of the area respectively. The chorological studies indicated that the most species belonged to Irano-Turanian zone, while 4% were common species in both Irano-Turanian and Hyrcanian zones (Fig. 2).

 

 

Table 1. List of family, species, life form and chorotypes of Deh-Kohneh forest.

Family

Species

Life- form1

Chorotype2

Aceraceae

Acer monspessulanum L.

Ph

IT

Amaryllidaceae

Ixiolirion tataricum (pall.) Herb.

Gb

IT

Anacardiaceae

Pistacia atlantica Desf.

Ph

IT

Apiaceae

Bunium sp.

Gt

IT

Chaerophyllum macropodum Boiss.

He

IT

Eryngium  billardieri F.

He

IT

Falcaria vulgaris Behm.

He

IT

Ferula persica Wild.

He

IT

Pimpinella  sp.

He

IT

Prangos uloptera DC.

He

IT

Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl.

He

IT

Smyrniopsis aucheri Boiss.

He

IT

Smyrnium cordifolium  Boiss.

He

IT

Asteraceae

 

Anthemis  sp.

Th

IT

Cichorium  intibus L.

He

IT, H

Cirsium libanoticum  DC.

He

IT

Cousinia sect. alba

He

IT

Gundelia  tournefortii L.

He

IT

Inula  britannica L.

He

 

Scariola  orientalis (Boiss.) Sojak.

He

IT

Tanacetum polycephalum  Schultz-Bip.

He

IT

Berberidaceae

Berberis  integerrima Bge.

Ph

IT

Boraginaceae

Solenanthus circinatus Ledeb.

He

IT

Brassicaceae

Drabopsis  verna C. Koch.

Th

IT, H

Fibigia  macrocarpa (KY & Boiss.)

He

IT

Hesperis  persica Boiss.

He

IT

Matthihola  ovatifolia  Boiss.

He

IT

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera  nummulariifolia Jaub & Spach

Ph

IT

Caryophyllaceae

Gypsophila polyclada Huds.

He            

IT

Silene  spergulifolia (Wild.) M.B.

He

IT

Dipsacaceae

Pterocephalus  canus Coult. ex DC.

He            

IT

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia plebeia Boiss.

He

IT

Euphorbia sp.

He

IT

Gentianaceae

Gentiana  oliviery  Griseb.

He

IT

Geranium tuberosum L.

Gt              

IT

Biebersteinia  multifida DC.

He

IT

Lamiaceae

Ajuga  chamaecistus  Ging.

Ch

IT

Ballota  aucheri Boiss.

He

IT

Marrubium  anisodan C. Koch.

He

IT

Phlomis  aucheri  Boiss.

He

IT

Phlomis  olivieri  Benth.

He

IT

Phlomis  persica  Boiss.

He

IT

Salvia  verbasifolia  M.B

He

IT

Stachys  inflate Benth.

He

IT

Stachys ixodes Boiss & Hausskn. Ex.Boiss

He

IT

Liliaceae

Colchicum kotschyi Boiss.

Gb            

IT

Fritillari  aimperialis L.

Gb

IT

Muscari  neglectum Guss

Gb            

IT

Oleaceae

Fraxinus  rotundifolia Miller.

Ph

IT

Papilionaceae

Astragalus  adscendens  Boiss & Hausskn.

Ch

IT

Astragalus  cephalanthus DC.

Ch

IT

Astragalus  cyclophyllos Beck.

He

IT

Astragalus  gossypinus  Fisch.

Ch

IT

Astragalus  sojakii  Podlech

He

IT

Glycyrrhiza  glabra L.

He

IT,H

Hedysarum  criniferum Boiss.

He

IT

Ononis  spinosa L.

Ch

IT

Plumbaginaceae

Acantholimon  melananthum Boiss.

Ch

IT

Poaceae

Agropyrum  repens (L.) P. Beauv.

Gr

IT

Agropyrum  sp.

He

IT

Alopecurus  arundinacae Poir.

Gr

IT

Arrhenatherum  kotschyi Boiss.

Gb

IT

Boissiera  squarrosa  Hochst .ex Steud

Th            

IT

Bromus  danthoniae Trin.

Th            

IT

Bromus  sterilis L.

Th            

IT

Bromus  tectorum L.

Th            

IT

Bromus  tomentellus L.

Th            

IT

Dactylis  glomerata L.

He

IT, H

Festuca  ovina  L.

He

IT

Heteranthellium  piliferum (Banks & Soland.) Hochst

Th            

IT

Hordeum  bulbosum L.

Gb            

IT

Hordeum  violaceum Boiss. et Huet

He

IT

Oryzopsis  pubiflora  Hack.

He

IT

Poa  bulbosa L.

Gb            

IT

Psathyrostachys  fragilis (Boiss.) Nerski.

He

IT

Taeniatherum  crinitum (Schreb.)Neveski.

Th

IT

Polygonaceae

Polygonum  thymifolium Jaub & Spach

Ch               

IT

Rheum persicum Los.

Gr

IT

Ranunculaceae

 

Ranunculus kotschy Boiss

He

IT

Ranunculus arvensis L.

Th

IT

Ranunculus sp. L.

He

IT

Rosaceae

Agrimonia  eupatoria L.

He

IT

Amygdalus  elaeagnifolia Spach.

Ph

IT

Ceracus  brachypetala Boiss.

Ph

IT

Ceracus  microcarpa (C.A. Mey.) Boiss.

Ph

IT

Cotoneaster lurestanica Klotz.

Ph

IT

Cotoneaster persica Pojark.

Ph

IT

Crataegus  aronia (L.) Bosc ex DC.

Ph

IT

Pyrus  glabra Boiss.

Ph

IT

Pyrus  syriaca Boiss.

Ph

IT

Rosa sp.

Ch

IT

Sanguisorba  minor Scoop.

He

IT

Rubiaceae

Asperula  brachyanthaBoiss.

He            

IT

Galium sp. L.

He            

IT

Scrophulariaceae

Scrophularia sp.

He

IT

Veronica orientalis Miller.

He

IT

Thymelaceae

Daphne mucronata Royle.

Ph

IT

1Life forms in the study area , Ph -phanerophyte, Ch – chamaephytes, He- hemicryptophytes, Th –therophytes, Gb –Geophytes Bulb, Gr- Geophytes Rhizome, Gt- Geophytes Tuber

2Chorotypes in studied area Irano-Turanian (IT) Irano-Turanian, Hyrcanian (IT-H)

 

 

 

Fig. 2. Life forms in studied area , Ph-phanerophyte, Ch – chamaephytes, He- hemicryptophytes, Th –Therophytes, Gb –Geophytes Bulb, Gr- Geophytes Rhizome, Gt- Geophytes Tuber.

 

 

Fig. 3. Frequency of plants families in Deh-Kohneh forest.

 

 

DISCUSSION

The Deh-Kohneh forest protected area, located at the south of the Central Zagros, the southwest of Iran, is known as genetic reserve of wild pear species. Studies on the herbaceous flora, life- forms and chorology of plant species in the Deh-Kohneh forest are scarce and this study demonstrates the importance of herbaceous plants in this area. Poaceae, Rosaceae and Apiaceae were among the richest families in the present study and were represented mainly by herbaceous species (Hemicryptophytes, Phanerophytes, Therophytes, Chamaphytes and Geophytes). The chorological studies showed that all of the species belong to Irano-Turanian zone, and 4%

 

of them were common in both  Irano-Turanian and Hyrcanian zones (Takhtajan1986; Zohary 1973).The appearance of all genera, which are characteristic elements of the Irano-Turanian zone, showed that this region belongs to this zone. The low incidence of some genera include Dactylis, Glycyrrhiza, Drabopsis and Cichorium, which are  the members of the Hyrcanian zone, shows that  this area was not affected by this zone.

The frequency of Asteraceae may be due to damage caused by grazing in some areas of the region which should be considered warning for the area.

Experience has shown that when the percentage of degradation of vegetation in the area increase, the members of some plant families, such as family Asteraceae are found in greater extent in the region flora (Vaseghi et al. 2007).

According to Fig. 2, Hemicryptophytes have more richness than the other region life- form in the area. Hemichryptophytes are the characteristics of the cold climate and mountainous region (Archibold 1995).

Since the climate is cold and dry, so frequency of Hemichryptophytes is affected by the climate.

All studies conducted on vegetation in Fars Province have been done for brief studies on a scale1/250000. Study on flora and geographical origin of vegetation in each area is one of the most effective methods for genetic resources conservation and management of biodiversity, so the presented study conducted in a limited forest area, as long as the pattern close to nature preserves, and can be compared with grazed same areas.

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