The importance of Guilan silk and its economic significance at Safavid period in Caspian region


Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Iran


Guilan province is located in north of Iran. It plays an important natural, economic and strategic role in Iranian history due to its geographical location between the Caspian Sea and the Alborz Mountain. This particular characteristic of Guilan has made it one of the most important political centers in its history and in the history of its struggles against the central government of Iran. Iran neighborhood with Russia and Caucasia during the Safavid Dynasty has added to Guilan economic significance. Guilan silk in the Safavid era made Iran well known as far as most of traders and tourists and orientalists who traveled to Iran have pointed to it in their writings. In this study, the importance of this strategic merchandise are investigated and discussed from the viewpoint of economics, income creation, commerce, tolls, customs as well as its export, taxes, products and the commercial routes.


Ibn Hoqal, Ttavel notes of Ibn Hoqal: Translated by Jafar Shoar, Tehran: Amir Kabir publications, (1983). Ibn Faqih, Mokhtasar – al – Boldan: Translated by H. Masoud, Tehran: Iran Cultural Foundation Publications, (1970).
Estakhri, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim, and Schools of Practices & Territories: Compiled by Iraj Afshar, Tehran: Cultural and Scientific publications Co, (1989).
Oleiarus, Adam, Travel notes of Adam Oleiarus: Translated by M.H. Kordbacheh., (1990); vol. 2, Tehran: Books for All Publications Co. Berthold et al., A Handbook of Iran Historical Geography: Translated by Hamzeh Sardadvar, Tehran: Iran publications union, (1924).
Petroshefsky, A.P. Iran's Agriculture & Land Divisions in the Mongolian Era. vol. 1: Translated by Karim Keshavarz, Tehran: Studies and Social Research Institute, (1965).
Jayhani, Abolghasem Bin Ahmad, Askal- Al – Alam: Translated by Ali Ibn Abdolsalam Kateb and notes by Firooz Mansouri, Mashhad: Astan Ghods Razavi Publications, (1989).
Dellavalle, Pietro, and Travel Letters of Pietro Dellavalle: Translated by Shojaedin Shafa, Tehran: Translation & Book publication Institute, (1969).
Sanson (A Traveller's Notes) Iran's status during Shah Suleiman Safavid. Translated and compiled by Taghi Tafazoli., Tehran: Ibn-e- Sina Publications, (1967).
Venetian Travel Notes on Iran: Translated by Manouchehr Amir, Tehran: Kharazmi Publications Company Ltd, (1970).
Sivory, Rojer, Iran during of Safavid: Translated by Kambiz Azizi, Tehran: Central publications, (1973). Charden, Jaun, Charden's Travel Accounts; vol. 4: Translated by Mohammad Abbasi, Tehran: Amir Kabir publications, (1957).
Sheibani, Jaun, European Journeys to Iran., Translated by Zia-ed-din Dehshiri., Tehran: Translation and Book publication Institute, (1974).
Falsafi, Nasrollah The life of Shah Abbas., vol.5, Tehran: Kayhan Book publication, (1960). Ghazvini, Zakaria- bin – Mohammad – bin – Mahmoud, Asar – al – Belad Va Akhbar – al – Ebad: Translated by Adolrahman Sharafkandi, Tehran: Institute for Scientific Youth Thought, (1987).
 Keshavarz, Karim, Guilan, Ebn e Sina Publication, Tehran, (1960).
Clavijo, Sir Alfonso Di Clavijo,s Travel Notes., Translated by Masaud Rajabnia, Tehran: Translation and Book publication. Institute, (1998).
Gabriel, Alforence Geographical Research on Iran., Translated by Fathali Khaje Noori., Corrections made by Homayoun Khaje Noori., Tehran: Sina Publications, (1968).
Lafon & H.L. Rabino, The industry of Silk Worm Seeds., Translated by Jafar Khomamizadeh., Tehran: Cultural and Research Studies Institute, (1993).
Marco Polo, Marco Polo Traveller Note., Translated by Habibollah Sahihi., Tehran: Translation and Book publication Institute, (1971).
Mostufi, Hamdollah: Nozhattol – Qolub., Compiled by Mohammad Dabir Siaqi., Tehran: Tahuri Book Store, (1987).
 Houshang Mahdavi, Abdolreza, History of Iran's Foreign Relations, Tehran: Amir Kabir Publications, (1984). Hodud al- Alam; Completed by Manuchehr Sotudeh, Tehran, Tahuri, (1982); p: 144.