Feeding behavior of brown trout, Salmo trutta fario, during spawning season in four rivers of Lar National Park, Iran

Authors

1 Inland Water Aquaculture Research Center, P.O.Box 66, Bandar Anzali, Iran.

2 National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan Republic, Faculty of Zoology, Azerbaijan Republic.

3 nland Water Aquaculture Research Center, P.O.Box 66, Bandar Anzali, Iran. *Corresponding Author’s E-mail: Salavatian_2002@yahoo.com

Abstract

Brown trout, Salmo trutta fario, has a wide range of distribution in the north of Iran and in Karaj, Lighvanchai and Karun Rivers, but there is no report about its feeding behavior in some water resources including the Lar Natural Park. In order to study feeding behavior of this fish during spawning season, a survey was carried out in the rivers of Elarm, Aab-Sefid, Kamardasht and Delichayi in fall 2008. A total of 140 individuals of brown trout were caught by cast net and electro fishing. Mean weight and length of the samples were 130?79.5 g and 216.9?39 mm, respectively. The age of fish was 2 to 6 years and mean age was 3.02?1.3. The mean relative gut length (RLG) of samples was 0.86?1. It was found that brown trout fed on various preys (32 animal groups), that Chironomidae (88.6%), Simulidae (60%), Baetidae (51.4%) and Tipulidae (50%) have had the most frequency in the gut of brown trout. The proportion of food consumed by trout was Diptera 91.5% (Chironomidae pupa and larvae 85.8%), Coleoptera 6.4% and others 2.1%. Cannibalism was seen scarcely. In conclusion, brown trout consumes a wide range of food items in its spawning season. Therefore, it can be classified as euryphagous and carnivaorous.
 
REFERENCES
Abassi, K., Sayadrahim, M., Jafarzadeh, S., and Darvishzad, R., 2004. Some biological characteristics of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in west of Gilan province rivers, southern Caspian Sea. Inland Water Aquaculture Research Center, Bandar Anzali, Iran, 68 p.
Abdoli, A., 1999. Inland water fishes of Iran. Nature and Wild life Museum of Iran, Tehran, 377 p.
 Abdollahpoor, H., Salavatian, S. M. and Abbasi, K, 2011 a. Investigation on feeding habit of Salmo trutta fario in Hevigh River (Guilan Province). Second national conference on fisheries. Science and aquatic Organisms. 10-12 May. Lahijan.Iran. live food part, pp. 99-108.
Abdollahpoor, H., Abbasi , K and Salavatian, S. M., 2011 b. Investigation on diet preference of Salmo trutta fario in Shafarud River (Guilan Province). Second national conference on fisheries. Science and aquatic Organisms. 10-12 May. Lahijan.Iran. live food part, p. 454-464.
Alp, A.,C. and Buyukcapar,H.M.2005. Age, growth and diet composition of the resident brown trout, Salmo trutta macrostigma Dumeril 1858, in firniz stream of the River ceyhan. Turkey.Turk.J.Vet.Anim.Sci.29:285-295.
Alanara, A., Brannas, E.,1997.Diurnal and nocturnal feeding activity in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpines) and rain bow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).Can.J.Fish. Aquat. Sci.54,2894-2900.
Afrayi, M., Fazli, H. and Moslemi, M., 2000. Some biological characteristics of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) In Tonekabon river, Southern Caspian Sea. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 9: 21- 34.
Araghi, A., 1996. Feeding behavior of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) In Noor river, Southern Caspian Sea. Tehran University, 95 p.
Armantrout, N. B. 1980. The freshwater fishes of Iran.PhD Thesis. Oregon Statein University, Corvallis.oregon. XX, 472 P.
Banagar, G. R., Hassanzadeh Kiabi, B., Homayoonnezhad, I. , Piri, I. and Amirian, P. 2008. Biodiversity of Fish Species in Haraz River (An Ecological Approach). World Applied Sciences Journal, 5: 05-11.
Berg, L. S., 1948. Freshwater fishes of USSR and adjacent countries. Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, Vol.1. 496 p.
Biswas, S. P., 1993. Manual methods in fish biology. South Asian Publishers Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India, 157 p.
Bridcut, E. E., Giller,P.S., 1993. Diet variability in relation to season and habitat utilization in brown trout (salmo trutta L.) in a southern Irish stream.In Gibson,R.J.,Cutting,R.E (Eds.),production of Juvenile Atlantic salmon salmo salar in natural waters.Can.Spec.publ.Fish. Aquat.Sci., 118, pp. 17-24.
Coad, C. B., 1979. Provisional annotated checklist of freshwater fishes of Iran. Bombay, Nat. Hist. Sec, 76: 86-103.
Coad, B.W. 2011. The freshwater fishes of Iran. Assessed from personal web site, www.Briancoad.com. April 7.
Crespin De Billy, V.D E, B. Dumont, T.Labarrigue, P.Baran and B.Statzner, 2002. Invertebrate accessibility and vuinerability in the analysis of brown trut (Salmo trutta L.) summer habitat suitability. River Res. Appl.18:533-553.
Debljak, L., 1986. The nutrition of brown trout (Salmo fario) in Bager reservoir and Lepenica Stream. J. Ichthyos., 3: 1-7.
Derzhavin, J. V., 1934. Freshwater fishes of the southern shore of the caspian sea,Nauk SSSR, Sektor Zoologii, Baku 7:91-126 (In Russian).
 Abstract to English Emadi, H., 1988. Guide to propagation of brown trout and Salmon fishes. Abzyan Publishing, Tehran, 89 p.
Elmi, A. M., 2003. Comprehensive studies of Lar national park. Environment Protection Organization, Tehran, 53 p.
Elliot, J. M., 1967. The food of trout (Salmo trutta) in a Dartmoor Stream. Journal of Applied Ecology, 4: 60-71.
Fakharzadeh, M., Emmami, H. M. and Ahmadinia, M. R., 2008. Brown trout diet in Karaj River. Azad University, Tehran, 8 p.
Fausch, K.D., Nakano, S., Kitano, S. .1997. Experimentally induced foraging mode shift by sympatric charrs in a Japanese mountain stream. Behav. Ecol; 8: 414- 420.
Ferriz, R. A., 1988. Feeding relationship of brown trout (Salmo fario) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnari) in the Ramos Mexia reservoir, Neuquen Province. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment ,23: 123-131.
Fochetti, R.,I., Amici and R. Agano, 2003, Seasonal changes and selectivity in the diet of brown trout in the River Nera. (central Italy). J. Freshwat. Ecol., 18: 437-444.
Fochetti, R., Argano, R. and Tierno, M., 2008. Feeding ecology of various age classes of brown trout in Nera River, Central Italy.Belg. I. Zool., 138: 128-131.
Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2011. Some data on salmo trutta trutta and S. trutta fario. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. Version (05/2011).
Frost, W. E., Brown, M. E., 1967. The trout Collins, St. james place, London, p. 286.
Ghane, A., 2008. Qualitative classification of rivers in Iranian coast of Caspian Sea in Gilan province, using population structure of macro -zoo benthic. Inland Water Aquaculture Research Center, Bandar Anzali, 10 p.
Gholief, Z. M. 2005. Trout (Salmo fario Linnae) of Azerbaijan (Morphomerology, Ecology and Protection). Azerbaijan sciences Academy. Baku. 112 p.
Grimas, U., 1963. Reflection on the availability and utilization degree of bottom animals of fish food. Zool. Biidr. Upps., 35: 497-503.
Heggenes. J., Krog, O.M.W., Lindas,O.R.,Dokk,J .G., Bremnes,T., 1993. Homeostatic behavioural responses in a changing environment: brown trout (salmo trutta) become nocturnal during winter.J.Anim.Ecol. 62: 295-308.
Houlihan, D., Boujard, T., Joblin, M. 2002. Food take in fish. Jobling, Malcolm, Coves, Denis., Techniques for Measuring feed intake.  pp. 48-77.
Hunt, P. C. and Jones, J. W., 1972. The food of brown trout in Liyn Alew, Anglesey, North Wales. J. Fish. Bio., 4: 333-352.
Jafari, E., 1995. Iranian rivers Atlas. Geography and Cartography Organization, Tehran, 546 p.
Johnsen, B.O., 1978. Seasonal variation in the diet of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in Norwegian Mountain Lake compared with variation in the plankton and bottom fauna. Astarte, 11: 37-43.
Jonsson, B., 1989. Life history and habitat use of Norwegian brown trout (Salmo trutta). Freshw. Biol. 21: 71-86.
Kasimov, A.Q., 2000. Macrobentoz. Method monitoring (Diptera chapter). Kaspiyskom more. Baku, pp. 35-41.
Kazancheev, E.N., 1981. Caspian Sea and its watershed fishes (In Russian). Translated to Persian by: Shariati, A. 2003. Naghshe Mehr Publishing, Tehran. 224 p.
Kheyrandish, A., Abdoli, A., Mostafavi, H., Niksirat, H., Naderi, M. and Vatandoost, S. 2010. Age and growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in the six rivers of Southern part of Caspian Sea. American Journal of Animals and Veterinary Sciences, 5: 8-12.
Kiabi,B., Abdoli,A. & Naderi, M., 1999. Status of the fish fauna the south Caspian basin. J. of the Zoology in the Middle East, 18:  57-65.
Maitland, P.S., 1965. The feeding relationship of salmon, minnows, stone loach and three spined stickle-backs in the river Endrick, Scotland. Anim. Ecol., 69-71.
 McLaughlin, R.L., Ferguson, M.M., Noakes, D.L.G. 1999: Adaptive peaks and alternative foraging tactics in brook charr: evidence of short-term divergent selection for sitting and waiting and actively searching. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol: 45:386-395.
Merritt, R.W., Commins, K.W. and Berg M.B.2008. An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Iowa, USA., 1003 p.
Moslemi, M. 1996. Food behavior of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in Tonekabon River. Tehran University, 88 p.
Nikolskii, G.N., 1954. Special ichthyology. Published for the National Science Foundation, Washington D.C. by Israel Program for Scientific Translation Jerusalem, 183 p.
Oscoz, D., Leunda, P.M., Compos, F., Escala, M.C. and Miranda, R., 2002. Diet of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the river Erro (Navarra, North of Spain), Lionnetica, 24: 319-326.
Saadati, M.A.G., 1997. Taxonomy and distribution of freshwater fishes of Iran. Colorado State University, USA, 212 p.
Sagar, P.M. and G.J.Glova, 1995.Prey availability and diet of Juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) in relation to riparian willows (Salix spp.) in three New Zealand streams . New Z.J.Mar. Freshwat. Res. 29: 527-537.
Vatandoost, S., Abdoli, A. and Mostafavi, H. 2008. Determination of food preference of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in Ashkrood River. The first seminar of inland waters of Iran. Bushehr. 7-8 Dec. Iran, p. 9.
Vollestad, L.A. and Anderson R. 1985. Resources partitioning of various age group of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in littoral zone of lake Selura, Norway. Archive for Hydrobiology, 105: 177-185.
Vosooghi, G.R. and Mostajir, B. 2005. Freshwater fishes. Tehran University Publishing. 317 p.
Werner, E.E. and J.F. Gilliam, 1984: The ontogenetic niche and species interactions in size-structured populations. Annu.Rev.Ecol.syst. 15:393- 425.
Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall International Incorporation, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersy, 620 p.

Keywords


Abassi, K., Sayadrahim, M., Jafarzadeh, S., and Darvishzad, R., 2004. Some biological characteristics of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in west of Gilan province rivers, southern Caspian Sea. Inland Water Aqua culture Research Center, Bandar Anzali, Iran, 68 pp.

 

Abdoli, A., 1999. Inland water fishes of Iran. Nature and Wild life Museum of Iran, Tehran, 377 pp

 

 

Abdollahpoor, H., Salavatian, S. M. and Abbasi, K, 2011 a. Investigation on feeding habit of Salmo trutta fario in Hevigh River (Guilan Province). Second national conference on fisheries. Science and aquatic Organisms. 10-12 May. Lahijan.Iran. live food part, pp 99-108.

 

Abdollahpoor, H., Abbasi , K and Salavatian, S. M., 2011 b. Investigation on diet preference of Salmo trutta fario in Shafarud River (Guilan Province). Second national conference on fisheries. Science and aquatic Organisms. 10-12 May. Lahijan.Iran. live food part, pp 454-464.

 

Alp,A.,C. and Buyukcapar,H.M.2005. Age,growth and diet composition of the resident brown trout, Salmo trutta macrostigma Dumeril 1858, in firniz stream of the River ceyhan. Turkey.Turk.J.Vet.Anim.Sci.29:285-295.

 

Alanara,A.,Brannas,E.,1997.Diurnal and nocturnal feeding activity in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpines) and rain bow trout Salavatian et al., 231(Oncorhynchus mykiss).Can.J.Fish. Aquat. Sci.54,2894-2900.

 

Afrayi, M., Fazli, H. and Moslemi, M., 2000. Some biological characteristics of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) In Tonekabon river, Southern Caspian Sea. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 9 (3): 21-34.

 

Araghi, A., 1996. Feeding behavior of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) In Noor river, Southern Caspian Sea. Tehran University, 95 pp. Armantrout, N. B. 1980. The freshwater fishes of Iran.PhD Thesis. Oregon Statein University ,Corvallis.oregon. XX +472 P.

 

Banagar, G. R., Hassanzadeh Kiabi, B., Homayoonnezhad, I. , Piri, I. and Amirian, P. 2008. Biodiversity of Fish Species in Haraz River (An Ecological Approach). World Applied Sciences Journal 5 (1): 05-11.

 

Berg, L. S., 1948. Freshwater fishes of USSR and adjacent countries. Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, Vol.1.496 pp. Biswas, S. P., 1993.Manual methods in fish biology. South Asian Publishers Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India, 157 pp.

 

Bridcut,E.E.,Giller,P.S.,1993.Diet variability in relation to season and habitat utilization in brown trout (salmo truttaL.) in a southern Irish stream.In Gibson,R.J.,Cutting,R.E (Eds.),production of Juvenile Atlantic salmon salmo salar in natural waters.Can.Spec.publ.Fish. Aquat.Sci., 118,pp.17-24.

 

Coad, C. B., 1979. Provisional annotated checklist of freshwater fishes of Iran. Bombay, Nat. Hist. Sec, 76: 86-103.

 

Coad, B.W. 2011. The freshwater fishes of Iran. Assessed from personal web site, www.Briancoad.com. April 7.

 

Crespin De Billy, V.DE,B.Dumont, T.Labarrigue, P.Baran and B.Statzner, 2002. Invertebrate accessibility and vuinerability in the analysis of brown trut (Salmo trutta L.) summer habitat suitability. River Res. Appl.18:533-553.

 

Debljak, L., 1986. The nutrition of brown trout (Salmo fario) in Bager reservoir and Lepenica Stream. J.Ichthyos., 3: 1-7.

 

Derzhavin, J. V., 1934. Freshwater fishes of the southern shore of the caspian sea,Nauk SSSR, SektorZoologii, Baku 7:91-126 .In Russian. Abstract to English Emadi,

 

H., 1988. Guide to propagation of brown trout and Salmon fishes. Abzyan Publishing, Tehran, 89 pp. Elmi, A. M., 2003. Comprehensive studies of Lar national park. Environment Protection Organization, Tehran, 53 pp.

 

Elliot, J. M., 1967. The food of trout (Salmo trutta) in a Dartmoor Stream. Journal of Applied Ecology, 4: 60-71.

 

Fakharzadeh, M., Emmami, H. M. and Ahmadinia, M. R., 2008. Brown trout diet in Karaj River. Azad University, Tehran, 8 pp.

 

Fausch, K.D., Nakano, S., Kitano, S. .1997. Experimentally induced foraging mode shift by sympatric charrs in a Japanese mountain stream. Behav. Ecol; 8:414-420.

 

Ferriz, R. A., 1988. Feeding relationship of brown trout (Salmo fario) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnari) in the Ramos Mexia reservoir, Neuquen Province. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment ,23(3): 123-131.

 

Fochetti,R.,I.Amici and R.Agano,2003:Seasonal changes and selectivity in the diet of brown trout in the River Nera. (central Italy).J.freshwat.Ecol.18:437-444.

 

Fochetti, R., Argano, R. and Tierno, M., 2008. Feeding ecology of various age classes of brown trout in Nera River, Central Italy.Belg. I. Zool., 138 (2): 128-131.

 

Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2011. Some data on salmo trutta trutta and S. trutta fario . FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. Version (05/2011).

 

Frost, W. E., Brown, M. E., 1967. The trout Collins,st james place,London, pp.286. Ghane, A., 2008. Qualitative classification of rivers in Iranian coast of Caspian Sea in Gilan province, using population structure of macro -zoo benthic. Inland Water Aquaculture Research Center, Bandar Anzali, 10 pp.

 

Gholief, Z. M. 2005. Trout (Salmo fario Linnae) of Azerbaijan (Morphomerology, Ecology and Protection). Azerbaijan sciences Academy. Baku. 112p.

 

Grimas, U., 1963. Reflection on the availability and utilization degree of bottom animals of fish food. Zool. Biidr. Upps., 35: 497-503.

 

Heggenes.J.,Krog,O.M.W.,Lindas,O.R.,Dokk,J.G., Bremnes,T., 1993. Homeostatic behavioural responses in a changing 232 Feeding behavior of brown trout environment: brown trout (salmo trutta) become nocturnal during winter.J.Anim.Ecol.62:295-308.

 

Houlihan, Dominic,. Boujard, Thierry,. Joblin, Malcolm,. 2002. Food take in fish.Jobling,Malcolm, Coves, Denis., Techniques for Measuring feed intake. Pp 48-77.

 

Hunt, P. C. and Jones, J. W., 1972. The food of brown trout in Liyn Alew, Anglesey, North Wales. J. Fish. Bio., 4: 333-352.

 

Jafari, E., 1995. Iranian rivers Atlas. Geography and Cartography Organization, Tehran,546 pp.

 

Johnsen, B.O., 1978. Seasonal variation in the diet of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in Norwegian Mountain Lake compared with variation in the plankton and bottom fauna. Astarte, 11: 37-43.

 

Jonsson, B., 1989. Life history and habitat use of Norwegian brown trout (Salmo trutta). Freshw. Biol. 21: 71-86.

 

Kasimov, A.Q., 2000. Macrobentoz. Method monitoring (Diptera chapter). Kaspiyskom more. Baku,pp 35-41.

 

Kazancheev, E.N., 1981. Caspian Sea and its watershed fishes (In Russian). Translated to Persian by: Shariati, A. 2003. Naghshe Mehr Publishing, Tehran. 224 pp.

 

Kheyrandish, A., Abdoli, A., Mostafavi, H., Niksirat, H., Naderi, M. and Vatandoost, S. 2010. Age and growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in the six rivers of Southern part of Caspian Sea. American Journal of Animals and Veterinary Sciences, 5(1): 8-12.

 

Kiabi,B., Abdoli,A. & Naderi, M., 1999. Status of the fish fauna the south Caspian basin. J. of the zoology in the middle east .18: p 57-65.

 

Maitland, P.S., 1965. The feeding relationship of salmon, minnows, stone loach and three spined stickle-backs in the river Endrick, Scotland. Anim. Ecol., 69-71.

 

McLaughlin, R.L., Ferguson, M.M., Noakes, D.L.G. ., 1999: Adaptive peaks and alternative foraging tactics in brook charr : evidence of short-term divergent selection for sitting and waiting and actively searching. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol: 45:386-395.

 

Merritt, R.W.,Commins, K.W. and Berg M.B.2008. An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Iowa, USA.,1003 pp.

 

Moslemi, M. 1996. Food behavior of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in Tonekabon River. Tehran University, 88 pp. Nikolskii, G.N., 1954. Special ichthyology. Published for the National Science Foundation, Washington D.C. by Israel Program for Scientific Translation Jerusalem, 183 pp.

 

Oscoz, D., Leunda, P.M., Compos, F., Escala, M.C. and Miranda, R., 2002. Diet of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the river Erro (Navarra, North of Spain), Lionnetica.Vol. 24 (3, 4): 319-326.

 

Saadati, M.A.G., 1997. Taxonomy and distribution of freshwater fishes of Iran. Colorado State University, USA, 212 pp.

 

Sagar,P.M. and G.J.Glova,1995.Prey availability and diet of Juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) in relation to riparian willows (Salix spp.) in three New Zealand streams . New Z.J.Mar.freshwat.Res.29:527-537.

 

Vatandoost, S., Abdoli, A. and Mostafavi, H. 2008. Determination of food preference of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in Ashkrood River. The first seminar of inland waters of Iran. Bushehr. 7-8 Dec. Iran, 9 P.

 

Vollestad, L.A. and Anderson R. 1985. Resources partitioning of various age group of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in littoral zone of lake Selura, Norway. Archive for Hydrobiology, 105: 177-185.

 

Vosooghi, G.R. and Mostajir, B. 2005. Freshwater fishes. Tehran University Publishing. 317 pp.

 

Werner,E.E. and J.F.Gilliam,1984: The ontogenetic niche and species interactions in size-structured populations. Annu.Rev.Ecol.syst. 15:393-425.

 

Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall International Incorporation, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersy. 620 p