Caspian Sea level fluctuation and Determination of Setback Line

Authors

1 Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.

2 Dept. of Forestry, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.

3 Caspian Sea National Research. Khazar square, Sari, Iran.

4 Dept. of Forestry, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Gorgan, Iran.

5 Dept. of Watershed Management, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Gorgan, Iran * Corresponding author’s E-mail: sabaee_220@yahoo.com

Abstract

In the past 25 years, rising of the Caspian Sea level, part of a natural treat to the sea, has inundated and destroyed many buildings and arable lands and threatened many inhabitations in coastal areas. The main reason for these damages is that the law-setback has lost its efficiency and human activities have proceeded seaward. The goal of this study is to introduce a proper setback line for the southern coast of Caspian Sea on the basis of critical water elevation and the results of coastal vulnerability assessment to sea level rise. This setback contains vertical and horizontal buffers. The Coastal vulnerability index (CVI) method is used for coastal vulnerability assessment and is also used in the Geographic Information System. Five variables in two sub-indices were used in this method. The final map obtained from coastal vulnerability assessment divided the coastal zone into low, moderate, high and very high risk categories based on quartile ranges and visual inspection of data. A mean distance of very high risk category of vulnerability map from a second vertical buffer in each rural district was then proposed as a width of horizontal buffer in the same rural district.
 
REFERENCES
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City of Boulder Planning and Development Services (2007). Wetlands and Stream Buffers: A Review of the Science and Regulatory Approaches to Protection.
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Ferreira, O., Gracia, T., Rui, A., Matias., J, Taborda, J., Dias, A. (2006). An Integrated Method for Determination of Set-back lines for Coastal erosion hazards on Sandy shores. Continental shelf research 26(2006) 1030-1044 (see also http://www.elsevier.com/locate/csr).
Gornitz, V. (1990). Vulnerability of the east coast, USA to future Sea level rise. Journal of Coastal research 1, Special Issue 9. Pages: 201-237.
Gornitz, V. M., Daniels, R. C., White, T. W., Birdwell, K. R. (1994). The Development of a Coastal Risk Assessment Database: Vulnerability to Sea-level rise in the U.S. Southest. Journal of Coastal research, Special Issue 12. Pages: 327-338.
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Mirasadi, Hamidreza. (1995). Integrated Co-ordinated Environment and Nature Management of the Caspian Sea drainage basin. 31 p.
Rodinov, S. N., (1994). Global and Regional Climate Interaction: The Caspian Sea Experience Water Science and Technology library, Kluwer Academic publisher, Dordrecht, 241 p.
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Szlafstein, Claudio f. (2005). Climate change, Sea-level rise and Coastal Natural Hazards: A GIS-based Vulnerability Assessment, State of Para, Brazil. Human security and Climate Change an International Workshop Asker near Oslo. 31 p.
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Keywords


Arulraj, M., Pandian, P., Ramachandran, S. (2006). Vulnerability mapping and resettlement for Baratang Island, Andaman, India. Map India (see also http://www.gisdevelopment.net/proceeding). City of Boulder Planning and Development Services (2007). Wetlands and Stream Buffers: A Review of the Science and Regulatory Approaches to Protection.

 

Eghtedari, omid (1997). Coastal zone area preluding of differences. Publiahed by: UNESCO & Iran Wild life & Natural Museum Ferreira, Oscar.,

 

Gracia, Tiago., Rui, Ana. Matias., J, Taborda., Dias, A. (2006). An Integrated Method for Determination of Set-back lines for Coastal erosion hazards on Sandy shores. Continental shelf research 26(2006) 1030-1044 (see also http://www.elsevier.com/locate/csr). Gornitz, V. (1990). Vulnerability of the east coast, USA to future Sea level rise. Journal of Coastal research 1, Special Issue 9. Pages: 201-237.

 

Gornitz, V. M., Daniels, R. C., White, T. W., Birdwell, K. R. (1994). The Development of a Coastal Risk Assessment Database: Vulnerability to Sea-level rise in the U.S.Southest. Journal of Coastal research, Special Issue 12. Pages: 327-338.

 

Haines, P. E. (2005). Determining appropriate Setbacks for future Development around ICOLLS 14th NSW Coastal conference, Narooma. 12P.

 

IMO. (2003). Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan for Andaman Islands. Report submitted to Ministry of Environment and Forestry. New Delhi. 325P.

 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change. (1990). Strategies for Adaptation to Sea level rise. Rijkswaterstaat. The hague Khozarev, A. N., Yablonskaya,

 

E. A., (1994). The Caspian Sea the Hague, SPB Academic publishing, 274pp.

 

Klaus, Arpe., Leroy, Suzanne A. G. (2007). The Caspian Sea level forced by atmospheric circulation as observed and modeled, Quaternary International 144-152

 

Mansuri, Arsalan. (1995). Analysis of Sea level Fluctuation (Caspi economic report). Minister of Energy (Caspian Sea National Research Center) press. P24-27.

 

McLaughlin, S., McKenna, J., Cooper, J. A. G. (2002). Socio-economic data in Coastal vulnerability Indices: Constraints and Opportunities. Journal of coastal research, Special Issue 36. Pages: 487-497. Minister of Energy. (2002). Collection of Laws and Regulations of Water and Wastewater Engineering. Chapter 3. 194P.

 

Mirasadi, Hamidreza. (1995). Integrated Co-ordinated Environment and Nature Management of the Caspian Sea drainage basin. P31.

 

Rodinov, S. N., (1994). Global and Regional Climate Interaction: The Caspian Sea Experience Water Science and Technology library, Kluwer Academic publisher, Dordrecht, 241pp.

Shamsi, Ali. (1994). Short term prediction of Caspian Sea level (transferred: Kligea, R. k.) situation of water source bulletin. NO. 15. P153-159.

 

Szlafstein, Claudio f. (2005). Climate change, Sea-level rise and Coastal Natural Hazards: A GIS-based Vulnerability Assessment, State of Para, Brazil. Human security and Climate Change an International Workshop Asker near Oslo. 31P.

 

Thieler, E. Robert., Hammar-klose, Erika S. (1999). National assessment of Coastal vulnerability to Sea-level rise: preliminary results for the US Atlantic coast. US Department of the interior, US geology survey.

 

Witten, J.H. and Frank, E. (2000) Data mining: practical machine learning tools and techniques with Java implementations, Morgan Kaufman publishers, San Francisco. 369 pp.