Ecological species groups in the rural heritage museum of Guilan Province, Iran

Authors

1 Dept. of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, P.O.Box 1144, Someh Sara, Iran.

2 Dept. of Range and Forest, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilam, Ilam, Iran *Corresponding author’s E-mail: abedi.roya@yahoo.com

Abstract

The objective of this research was to identify and describe the different Ecological Species Groups (vegetation types) present in the Rural Heritage Museum of Guilan. The study area was approximately 260 ha, which is located in the Saravan Forest Park in Guilan province, north of Iran. Sampling procedure was performed with a systematic random technique. A total of 89 plots were sampled. Classification of vegetation carried out using the Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) method showed that there were five ecological species groups in three layers; three groups in the shrub layer, nine groups in the herb layer and six ecological species groups in the regeneration layer. The results suggest improved protection and management of this area and that it can be proposed as a protected area on the basis of the numerous important species. The information obtained from the current study about this forest is useful for the design and management of this site because of its aesthetic values.
 
REFERENCES
Anonymous (2008) http://www.weather.ir
Adam, J.H., Mahmud, A.M., Muslim, N.E. (2007) Cluster analysis on floristic and forest structure of hilly lowland forest in Lak Kawi, Sabah of Malasia. Intl. J. Bot. 3, 351-358.
Barrett, G. (2006) Vegetation communities on the shores of a Salt Lake in semi-arid Western Australia. J. Arid. Environ. 67, 77-89.
Benhouhou, S.S., Dargie, T.C.D., Gilbert, O.L. (2003) Vegetation associations in the Ougarta Mountains and dayas of the Guir hamada, Algerian Sahara. J. Arid. Environ. 54, 739-753.
Bowers, K., Boutin, C. (2008) Evaluating the relationship between floristic quality and measures of plant biodiversity along stream bank habitats. Ecol. Indicators. 8, 466-475.
Cowlishaw, G., Davies, J.G. (1997) Flora of the Pro-Namib Desert Swakop River Catchment, Namibia: community classification and implications for desert vegetation sampling. J. Arid. Environ. 36, 271-290.
Davis, M.A., Pergl, J., Truscott, A.M., Kollmann, J., Bakker, J.P., Domenech, R., Prach, K., Prieur-Richard, A.H., Veeneklaas, R.M., Pyšek, P., del Moral, R., Hobbs, R.J., Collins, S.L., Pickett S.T.A., Reich, P.B. (2005) Vegetation change: a reunifying concept in plant ecology. Perspectives in Plant Ecolo. Evolution and Systematic, 7, 69-76.
Dengler, J., Chytry, M., Ewald, J. (2008) Phytosociology. Encyclopedia. Ecol. pp: 2767-2779.
Dias, E., Elias, R.B., Nunes, V. (2004) Vegetation mapping and nature conservation: a case study in Terceira Island (Azores). Biodiversity and Conservation, 13, 1519-1539.
Gajoti, T.E., Haciyev, V., Javanshir, A., Nosrati, H., Haghighi, A.R., Eimanifar,  A. Stewart, N. (2010) Vegetation Analysis of Sutan-Chay Basin in Arasbaran. Amer. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 5, 357-362.
 Hayes, T., Ostrom, E. (2005) Conserving the World’s Forests: Are Protected Areas the Only Way? In: Indiana Law Review’s Symposium on The Law and Economics of Development and Environment at the Indiana University School of Law-Indianapolis, 22 January, 38, 595-617.
Host, G.E., Pregitzer, K.S. (1991) Ecological species groups for upland forest ecosystems of northwestern Lower Michigan. For. Ecol. Manage. 43, 87-102.
Jafari, M., Zare Chahouki, M.A., Tavili, A., Azarnivand, H., Zahedi Amiri, G. (2004) Effective environmental factors in the distribution of vegetation types in Poshtkouh rangelands of Yazd Province (Iran). J. Arid. Environ. 56, 627-641.
Jalili, A., Jamzad, Z. (1999) Red data book of Iran. Research institute of forest and rangelands. Iran, 748 p.
Khaznadar, M., Vogiatzakis, I.N., Griffiths, G.H. (2009) Land degradation and vegetation distribution in Chott El Beida wetland, Algeria. J. Arid. Environ. 73, 369-377.
Kent, M., Coker, P. (1992) Vegetation Description and Analysis: a Practical Approach. Belhaven Press, London. 363 p.
McCune, B., Mefford, M.J. (1999) PC-ORD, Multivariate analysis of ecological data, version 4.17, MJM software, Glenden beach. Oregon, USA.
Morgenthal, T.L., Kellner, K., Van Rensburg, L., Newby, T.S., Van Der Merwe, J.P.A. (2006) Vegetation and habitat types of the Umkhanyakude Node. South African J. Bot. 72, 1-10.
Murphy, K.J., Dickinson, G., Thomaz, S.M., Bini, L.M., Dick, K., Greaves, K., Kennedy, M.P., Livingstone, S., McFerran, H., Milne, J.M., Oldroyd, J., Wingfield, R.A., (2003) Aquatic plant communities and predictors of diversity in a sub-tropical river floodplain: the upper Rio Parana, Brazil, Aquat. Bot. 77, 257–276.
Orloci, L. (1968) Information analysis in phytosociology: Partition, classification and prediction. J. Theoretical. Biol. 20, 271-284.
 Pearman, P.B., Weber, D. (2007) Common species determine richness patterns in biodiversity indicator taxa. Biol. Conserv. 138, 109-119.
Rolecek, J. (2005) Vegetation types of drymesic oak forests in Slovakia. Preslia, Praha. 77, 241-261.
Shaltout, K.H., Sheded, M.G., El-Kady, H.F., Al-Sodany, Y.M. (2003) Phytosociology and size structure of Nitraria retusa along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. J. Arid. Environ. 53, 331-345.
Timilsina, N., Ross, M.S., Heinen J.T. (2007) A community analysis of sal (Shorea robusta) forests in the western Terai of Nepal. For. Ecol. Manage. 241, 223-234.
Vogiatzakis, I.N., Griffiths, G.H., Mannion, A.M. (2003) Environmental factors and vegetation composition. Glob. Eco. Biogeo. 12, 131-146.
Woldewahid, G., Werfb, W., Sykorac, K., Abated, T., Mostofae, B., Huis, A. (2007) Description of plant communities on the Red Sea coastal plain of Sudan. J. Arid. Environ. 68, 113- 131.

Keywords


Anonymous (2008) http://www.weather.ir

 

Adam, J.H., Mahmud, A.M., Muslim, N.E. (2007) Cluster analysis on floristic and forest structure of hilly lowland forest in Lak Kawi, Sabah of Malasia. Intl. J.

 

Bot. 3(4), 351-358. Barrett, G. (2006) Vegetation communities on the shores of a salt lake in semi-arid Western Australia. J. Arid. Environ. 67, 77-89.

 

Benhouhou, S.S., Dargie, T.C.D., Gilbert, O.L. (2003) Vegetation associations in the Ougarta Mountains and dayas of the Guir hamada, Algerian Sahara. J. Arid. Environ.54, 739-753.

 

Bowers, K., Boutin, C. (2008) Evaluating the relationship between floristic quality and measures of plant biodiversity along stream bank habitats. Ecol. Indicators.8, 466-475.

 

Cowlishaw, G., Davies, J.G. (1997) Flora of the Pro-Namib Desert Swakop River Catchment, Namibia: community classification and implications for desert vegetation sampling. J. Arid. Environ.36(2), 271-290.

 

Davis, M.A., Pergl, J., Truscott, A.M., Kollmann, J., Bakker, J.P., Domenech, R., Prach, K., Prieur-Richard, A.H., Veeneklaas, R.M., Pyšek, P., del Moral, R., Hobbs, R.J., Collins, S.L., Pickett S.T.A., Reich, P.B. (2005) Vegetation change: a reunifying concept in plant ecology. Perspectives in Plant Ecolo. Evolution and Systematic, 7(1), 69-76.

 

Dengler, J., Chytry, M., Ewald, J. (2008) Phytosociology. Encyclopedia. Ecol. pp: 2767-2779.

 

Dias, E., Elias, R.B., Nunes, V. (2004) Vegetation mapping and nature conservation: a case study in Terceira Island (Azores). Biodiversity and Conservation,13(8), 1519-1539.

 

Gajoti, T.E., Haciyev, V., Javanshir, A., Nosrati, H., Haghighi, A.R., Eimanifar,

Ecological Species Groups122A. Stewart, N. (2010) Vegetation Analysis of Sutan-Chay Basin in Arasbaran. Amer. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 5(3), 357-362.

 

Hayes, T., Ostrom, E. (2005) Conserving the World’s Forests: Are Protected Areas the Only Way?. In: Indiana Law Review’s Symposium on The Law and Economics of Development and Environment at the Indiana University School of Law-Indianapolis, 22 January, 38, 595-617.

 

Host, G.E., Pregitzer, K.S. (1991) Ecological species groups for upland forest ecosystems of northwestern Lower Michigan. For. Ecol. Manage.43, 87-102.

 

Jafari, M., Zare Chahouki, M.A., Tavili, A., Azarnivand, H., Zahedi Amiri, G. (2004) Effective environmental factors in the distribution of vegetation types in Poshtkouh rangelands of Yazd Province (Iran). J. Arid. Environ.56, 627-641.

 

Jalili, A., Jamzad, Z. (1999) Red data book of Iran. Research institute of forest and rangelands. Iran. pp. 748.

 

Khaznadar, M., Vogiatzakis, I.N., Griffiths, G.H. (2009) Land degradation and vegetation distribution in Chott El Beida wetland, Algeria. J. Arid. Environ.73, 369-377.

 

Kent, M., Coker, P. (1992) Vegetation Description and Analysis: a Practical Approach. Belhaven Press, London. 363 pp.

McCune, B., Mefford, M.J. (1999) PC-ORD, Multivariate analysis of ecological data, version 4.17,

 

MJM software, Glenden beach. Oregon, USA. Morgenthal, T.L., Kellner, K., Van Rensburg, L., Newby, T.S., Van Der Merwe, J.P.A. (2006) Vegetation and habitat types of the Umkhanyakude Node. South African J. Bot.72(1), 1-10.

 

Murphy, K.J., Dickinson, G., Thomaz, S.M., Bini, L.M., Dick, K., Greaves, K., Kennedy, M.P., Livingstone, S., McFerran, H., Milne, J.M., Oldroyd, J., Wingfield, R.A., (2003) Aquatic plant communities and predictors of diversity in a sub-tropical river floodplain: the upper Rio Parana, Brazil, Aquat. Bot.77, 257–276.

 

Orloci, L. (1968) Information analysis in phytosociology: Partition, classification and prediction. J. Theoretical. Biol. 20(3), 271-284.

 

Pearman, P.B., Weber, D. (2007) Common species determine richness patterns in biodiversity indicator taxa. Biol. Conserv.138, 109-119.

 

 Rolecek, J. (2005) Vegetation types of dry-mesic oak forests in Slovakia. Preslia, Praha.77, 241-261.

 

Shaltout, K.H., Sheded, M.G., El-Kady, H.F., Al-Sodany, Y.M. (2003) Phytosociology and size structure of Nitraria retusa along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. J. Arid. Environ.53, 331-345.

 

Timilsina, N., Ross, M.S., Heinen J.T. (2007) A community analysis of sal (Shorea robusta) forests in the western Terai of Nepal. For. Ecol. Manage. 241, 223-234.

Vogiatzakis, I.N., Griffiths, G.H., Mannion, A.M. (2003) Environmental factors and vegetation composition. Glob. Eco. Biogeo. 12, 131-146.

 

Woldewahid, G., Werfb, W., Sykorac, K., Abated, T., Mostofae, B., Huis, A. (2007) Description of plant communities on the Red Sea coastal plain of Sudan. J. Arid. Environ.68, 113-131.