Seed germination response of Haloxylon persicum (Chenopodiaceae) to different hydrothermal conditions and sand burial depths

Author

Dept. of Forest Sciences, ShahreKord University, ShahreKord, Iran. E-mail: ali.soltani@nres.sku.ac.ir

Abstract

Daily counts of germinated seeds of white saxaul (Haloxylon persicum) incubated at 35 different hydrothermal environments (10-25?C and 0 to -3 MPa) were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. The seeds were then buried in sand at 4 different depths in well drained pots constantly moisturized for three weeks. In all these hydrothermal conditions, the courses of germination were completed in less than 12 days. Both temperature and water deficit conditions significantly affected the seed germination. Water potential values of -1.5 MPa reduced the germination percentage to less than one fourth of the potential viability in all ambient temperature regimes and seed germination almost completely ceased at water deficit of -3 MPa. As water potential decreased from 0 to -1.5, base temperature values slightly increased from 5.4 to 6.5 ?C. Six-cm depth of burial was enough to reduce germination by 50% and on an average 85% of germinated seeds at 8-cm depth failed to reach the soil surface. No seedling appeared on top of the sand bed in pots labeled \"12-cm burial depth".
 
REFERENCES
Akhani, H., Ghorbanli, M. (1993) A contribution to the halophytic vegetation and flora of Iran. In: H. Lieth and A. Al-Masoom (Eds.), Towards the rational use of high salinity tolerant plants, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 35-44.
Akhani, H., Trimborn, P., Ziegler, H. (1997) Photosynthetic pathways in Chenopodiaceae from Africa, Asia and Europe with their ecological, phytogeographical and taxonomical importance. Plant Syst. Evol., 206, 187- 221.
Alvarado, V., Bradford, K.J. (2002) A hydrothermal time model explains the cardinal temperatures for seed germination. Plant Cell. Environ., 25, 1061-1069.
Amani, M., Parvizi, A. (1996) [Silviculture of saxaul]. Forests and Range Lands Research Center Publication, Tehran, 118 p.
Baskin, C.C., Baskin, J.M. (2001) Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, San Diego, 665 p.
Bradford, K.J. (1990) A water relations analysis of seed germination rates. Plant Physiol., 94, 840–849.
Bradford, K.J. (1995) Water relations in seed germination. In: J. Kigel and G. Galili (Eds), Seed Development and Germination, Marcel Dekker, New York - USA, pp. 351–396.
Dahal, P., Bradford, K.J. (1990) Effects of priming and endosperm integrity on seed germination rates of tomato genotypes. II. Germination at reduced water potential. J. Exp. Bot., 41, 1441- 1453.
Finch-Savage, W.E. (1995) Influence of seed quality on crop establishment, growth, and yield. In: A.S. Basra (Ed), Seed quality: basic mechanisms and agricultural implications, Food Products Press, New York, pp. 361–384.
Finney, D.J. (1971) Probit analysis. Cambridge University Press London, 332 p.
Fyfield, T.P., Gregory, P.J. (1989) Effects of temperature and water potential on germination, radicle elongation and emergence of mungbean. J. Exp. Bot., 40, 667–674.
Gummerson, R.J. (1986) The effect of constant temperatures and osmotic potential on the germination of sugar beet. J. Exp. Bot., 37, 729-741.
Gutterman, Y. (1993) Seed germination in desert plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin ; New York, 253 p.
Holt, J.S., Orcutt, D.R. (1996) Temperature thresholds for bud sprouting in perennial weeds and seed germination in cotton. Weed Sci., 44, 523-533.
Jafari, M., Niknahad, H., Erfanzadeh, R. (2003) Effect of Haloxylon plantation on some soil characteristics and vegetation cover. Desert, 8, 152-162.
Kardavani, P. (1994) Arid areas. Tehran University Publications, Tehran, 318 p.
Kebreab, E., Murdoch, A. (2000) The effect of water stress on the temperature range for germination of Orobanche aegyptiaca seeds. Seed Sci. Res., 10, 127–133.
Kebreab, E., Murdoch, A.J. (1999) Modeling the effects of water stress and temperature on germination rate of Orobanche aegyptiaca seeds. J. Exp. Bot., 50, 655-664.
Koocheki, A. (1996) The use of halophytes for forage production and combating desertification in Iran. In: R. ChoukrAllah, C.V. Malcolm and A. Hamdy (Eds), Halophytes and biosaline agriculture, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 263-274.
Matin, M., Chegini, M.A., Borbar, Z., Modares, M. (1994) Seed pelleting as a method to improve success in aerial seeding of Haloxylon species. Seed and Seedling breeding Institute, Isfahan, 113 p.
Maun, M.A. (1998) Adaptations of plants to burial in coastal sand dunes. Can. J. Bot., 76, 713-738.
Maun, M.A. (2004) Seeds and seed banks. In: M.L. Martínez and N.P. Psuty (Eds.), Coastal dunes: ecology and conservation, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Michel, B.E. (1983) Evaluation of water potential of solutions of polyethylene glycol 8000 both in the absence and presence of other solutes. Plant Physiol., 72, 66-70.
Minitab Inc. (2000) MINITAB Reference Manual, Release 13 for Window™. Minitab Inc., State College.
Nemati, N. (1986) Pasture improvement and management in arid zones of Iran. J. Arid Environ., 11, 27-35.
Pyankov, V.I., Black, C.C., Artyusheva, E.G., Voznesenskaya, E.V., Ku, M.S.B., Edwards, G.E. (1999) Features of photosynthesis in Haloxylon species of Chenopodiaceae that are dominant plants in Central Asian deserts. Plant Cell Physiol., 40, 125-134.
Rowse, H.R., Finch-Savage, W.E. (2003) Hydrothermal threshold models can describe the germination response of carrot (Daucus carota) and onion (Allium cepa) seed populations across both sub- and supra-optimal temperatures. New Phytol., 158, 101-108.
Song, J., Feng, G., Tian, C., Zhang, F. (2005) Strategies for adaptation of Suaeda physophora, Haloxylon ammodendron and Haloxylon persicum to a saline environment during seed-germination stage. Ann. Bot., 96, 399-405.
Steinmaus, S.J., Prather, T.S., Holt, J.S. (2000) Estimation of base temperatures for nine weed species. J. Exp. Bot., 51, 275-286.
Tobe, K., Li, X., Omasa, K. (2000) Effects of NaCl on seed germination and growth of two Chinese desert shrubs, Haloxylon ammodendron and H. persicum (Chenopodiaceae). Aust. J. Bot., 48, 455-460.
Unknown (2006) [National annual report of synoptic and climatologic meteorology stations]. I.R. Iran Meteorology Organization, Tehran, 236 p.
Wang, R., Bai, Y., Tanino, K. (2005) Germination of winterfat (Eurotia lanata (Pursh) Moq.) seeds at reduced water potentials: testing assumptions of hydrothermal time model. J. Exp. Bot., 53, 49–63.
Wang, Z.L., Wang, G., Liu, X.M. (1997) Experiment on germination ecology of some desert plants. J. Desert Res., 17, 44-49.
Zheng, Y., Xie, Z., Yu, Y., Jiang, L., Shimizu, H., Rimmington, G.M. (2005) Effects of burial in sand and water supply regime on seedling emergence of six species. Ann. Bot., 95, 1237-1245.
Zohary, M. (1974) Geobotanical foundations of the Middle East. J. Ecol., 62, 349-350.  

Keywords


Akhani, H., Ghorbanli, M. (1993) A contribution to the halophytic vegetation and flora of Iran. In: H. Lieth and A. Al-Masoom (Eds), Towards the rational use of high salinity tolerant plants, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 35-44.

 

Akhani, H., Trimborn, P., Ziegler, H. (1997) Photosynthetic pathways in Chenopodiaceae from Africa, Asia and Europe with their ecological, phytogeographical and taxonomical importance. Plant Syst. Evol., 206, 187-221.

 

Alvarado, V., Bradford, K.J. (2002) A hydrothermal time model explains the cardinal temperatures for seed germination. Plant Cell. Environ., 25,1061-1069.

 

Amani, M., Parvizi, A. (1996) [Silviculture of saxaul]. Forests and Range Lands Research Center Publication, Tehran, 118 pp. Baskin, C.C., Baskin, J.M. (2001) Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, San Diego, 665 pp.

 

Bradford, K.J. (1990) A water relations analysis of seed germination rates. Plant Physiol., 94, 840–849. Bradford, K.J. (1995) Water relations in seed germination. In: J. Kigel and G. Galili (Eds), Seed Development and Germination, Marcel Dekker, New York - USA, pp. 351–396.

 

Dahal, P., Bradford, K.J. (1990) Effects of priming and endosperm integrity on seed germination rates of tomato genotypes. II. Germination at reduced water potential. J. Exp. Bot., 41, 1441-1453.

 

Finch-Savage, W.E. (1995) Influence of seed quality on crop establishment, growth, and yield. In: A.S. Basra (Ed), Seed quality: basic mechanisms and agricultural implications, Food Products Press, New York, pp. 361–384.

 

Finney, D.J. (1971) Probit analysis. Cambridge University Press London, 332 pp.

 

Fyfield, T.P., Gregory, P.J. (1989) Effects of temperature and water potential on germination, radicle elongation and emergence of mungbean. J. Exp. Bot., 40, 667–674.

 

Gummerson, R.J. (1986) The effect of constant temperatures and osmotic potential on the germination of sugar beet. J. Exp. Bot., 37, 729-741.

 

Gutterman, Y. (1993) Seed germination in desert plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin ; New York, 253 pp.

 

 Holt, J.S., Orcutt, D.R. (1996) Temperature thresholds for bud sprouting in perennial weeds and seed germination in cotton. Weed Sci., 44, 523-533.

 

Jafari, M., Niknahad, H., Erfanzadeh, R. (2003) Effect of Haloxylon plantation on some soil characteristics and vegetation cover. Desert, 8, 152-162.

 

Kardavani, P. (1994) Arid areas. Tehran University Publications, Tehran, 318 pp.

 

Kebreab, E., Murdoch, A. (2000) The effect of water stress on the temperature range for germination of Orobanche aegyptiaca seeds. Seed Sci. Res., 10,127–133.

 

Kebreab, E., Murdoch, A.J. (1999) Modeling the effects of water stress and temperature on germination rate of Orobanche aegyptiaca seeds. J. Exp. Bot., 50, 655-664.

 

Koocheki, A. (1996) The use of halophytes for forage production and combating desertification in Iran. In: R. Choukr-Allah, C.V. Malcolm and A. Hamdy (Eds), Halophytes and biosaline agriculture, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 263-274.

 

Matin, M., Chegini, M.A., Borbar, Z., Modares, M. (1994) Seed pelleting as a method to improve success in aerial seeding of Haloxylon species. Seed and Seedling breeding Institute, Isfahan, 113 pp. Maun, M.A. (1998) Adaptations of plants to burial in coastal sand dunes. Can. J. Bot., 76, 713-738.220 Seed germination of Haloxylon persicum

 

Maun, M.A. (2004) Seeds and seed banks. In: M.L. Martínez and N.P. Psuty (Eds), Coastal dunes: ecology and conservation, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp.

 

Michel, B.E. (1983) Evaluation of water potential of solutions of polyethylene glycol 8000 both in the absence and presence of other solutes. Plant Physiol., 72, 66-70.

 

Minitab Inc. (2000) MINITAB Reference Manual, Release 13 for Window™. Minitab Inc., State College. Nemati, N. (1986) Pasture improvement and management in arid zones of Iran. J. Arid Environ., 11, 27-35.

 

Pyankov, V.I., Black, C.C., Artyusheva, E.G., Voznesenskaya, E.V., Ku, M.S.B., Edwards, G.E. (1999) Features of photosynthesis in Haloxylon species of Chenopodiaceae that are dominant plants in Central Asian deserts. Plant Cell Physiol., 40, 125-134.

 

Rowse, H.R., Finch-Savage, W.E. (2003) Hydrothermal threshold models can describe the germination response of carrot (Daucus carota) and onion (Allium cepa) seed populations across both sub- and supra-optimal temperatures. New Phytol., 158, 101-108.

 

Song, J., Feng, G., Tian, C., Zhang, F. (2005) Strategies for adaptation of Suaeda physophora, Haloxylon ammodendron and Haloxylon persicum to a saline environment during seed-germination stage. Ann. Bot., 96, 399-405.

 

Steinmaus, S.J., Prather, T.S., Holt, J.S. (2000) Estimation of base temperatures for nine weed species. J. Exp. Bot., 51,275-286.

 

Tobe, K., Li, X., Omasa, K. (2000) Effects of NaCl on seed germination and growth of two Chinese desert shrubs, Haloxylon ammodendron and H. persicum (Chenopodiaceae). Aust. J. Bot., 48, 455-460.

 

Unknown. (2006) [National annual report of synoptic and climatologic meteorology stations]. I.R.Iran Meteorology Organization, Tehran, 236 pp.

 

Wang, R., Bai, Y., Tanino, K. (2005) Germination of winterfat (Eurotia lanata (Pursh) Moq.) seeds at reduced water potentials: testing assumptions of hydrothermal time model. J. Exp. Bot., 53, 49–63.

 

Wang, Z.L., Wang, G., Liu, X.M. (1997) Experiment on germination ecology of some desert plants. J. Desert Res., 17,44-49.

 Zheng, Y., Xie, Z., Yu, Y., Jiang, L., Shimizu, H., Rimmington, G.M. (2005) Effects of burial in sand and water supply regime on seedling emergence of six species. Ann. Bot., 95, 1237-1245.

Zohary, M. (1974) Geobotanical foundations of the Middle East. J. Ecol., 62, 349-350.