Microsatellite Polymorphism Reveals Low Genetic Differentiation between Fall and Spring Migratory Forms of Endangered Caspian Trout, Salmo trutta caspius (Kessler, 1870)

Authors

1 Faculty of Marine Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O.Box:46414-356, Noor, Iran.

2 Faculty of Marine Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 46414-356, Noor, Iran.

3 Faculty of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran. *Corresponding author’s E-mail: kalbassi_m@modares.ac.ir

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to assess genetic comparison of two migratory forms of Caspian trout Salmo trutta caspius namely fall-run and spring-run. Owing to the lack of information on its genetic differences, 5 microsatellite loci were used for 58 sample analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from caudal fin using Roche DNA extraction kit and each PCR reaction was performed in a 25 ?l reaction volume. Results revealed that the most allelic frequencies were observed in fall-runs of Caspian trout. The average observed and expected heterozygosity in fall-runs and spring-runs were 0.7719, 0.6108 and 0.4435, 0.5911, respectively. In both groups except Str543INRA in spring runs, all loci had deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Furthermore except Str543INRA in spring runs, expected heterozygosity in all loci was more than observed heterozygosity. In conclusion microsatellite loci polymorphism in this study reveals low genetic differentiation between fall-runs and spring-runs. In order to increase gene flow between Caspian trout populations of different rivers and to increase the production of these fishes, restoration of rivers habitats, as well as using more breeders originating from various rivers is highly recommended.
 
REFERENCES
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Banks, M.A., Rashbrook, V.K., Calavetta, M.J., Dean, C.A. and Hedgecock, D., 2000. Analysis of microsatellite DNA resolves genetic structure and diversity of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California's Central Valley, Can. J. Fish. Aquaculture Science, 57: 915- 927.
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Dorafshan, S., 2007. Chromosomal handlings of the Caspian trout (Salmo trutta caspius) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and comparison of the growth in F1. Partial Fulfillment for Degree of fisheriy Ph.D. College of Marine Science. Tarbiat Modares University, PP. 46-52.
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Hassanien, H.A., Elnady, M. Obeida, A. and Itriby, H., 2004. Genetic diversity of Nile Tilapia revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Aquaculture Research. 35: 587-593.
Jug, T., Berrebi, P. and Snoj, A., 2005. Distribution of non-Native Trout in Slovenia and their Introgression with Native Trout Population as Observed through Microsatellite. Biological Conservation. 123: 381-388.
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Ostergren, J., 2006. Migration and genetic structure of Salmo salar and Salmo trutta in Northern Swedish rivers. PHD thesis, Faculty of forest science, Department of aquaculture science, Umea, Swedish University.
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 Raymond, M. and Rousset, F., 1995. An exact test for population differentiation. Evolution, 49: 1280-1283.
Raymond, M. and Rousset, F., 2004. GENEPOP. http://www.wbiomed.curtin.edu.au/genepop. Ryman, N. and Laikre, L., 1991. Effects of supportive breeding on the genetically effective population size. Conservation Biology, 5: 325–329.
Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F and Maniatis, T., 1989. Electrophoresis of RNA through Gels Containing Formaldehyde: Molecular Cloning, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: CSH Laboratory Press. pp. 743–745.
Sonstebo, J.H., Borgstrom, R. and Heun, M., 2007. Genetic Structure of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) from the Hardangervidda Mountain Plateau (Norway) Analyzed by Microsatellite DNA: A Basis for Conservation Guidelines. Conservation Genetic, 8: 33- 44.
Verspoor, E. and Jordan, W.C. 1989. Genetic variation at the Me- 2 locus in the Atlantic salmon within and between rivers: evidence for its selective maintenance. Journal of Fish Biology, 35: 205- 213.
Wright, B.S. 1951. The genetical structure of populations Annual Eugenics, 15: 323- 354.
 

Keywords


Aho, T., Ronn, J., Piironen , J. and Bjorklund, M., 2006. Impacts of effective population size on genetic diversity in hatchery reared brown trout (Salmo truttaL.) populations. Aquaculture. (56): 244-248.

 

Banks, M.A., Rashbrook, V.K., Calavetta, M.J., Dean, C.A. and Hedgecock, D., 2000. Analysis of microsatellite DNA resolves genetic structure and diversity of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California's Central Valley, Can. J. Fish. Aquaculture Science.(57): 915- 927.

 

Cagigas, M.E., Vazquez, E., Blanco, G. and Sanchez, J.A., 1999. Combined assessment of genetic variability in populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) based on Allozymes, microsatellites, and RAPD markers. Marine biotechnology. (1): 286- 296.

 

Carlsson, J., and Nilsson J., 2001. Effects of Geomorphological Structures on Genetic Differentiation among Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Populations in a Northern Boreal River Drainage: Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, (130): 36- 45.

 

Carvalho, G.R., and Hauser, L., 1995. Molecular geneticsand the stock concept in fisheries. Molecular Genetics in Fisheries. London, Chapman and Hall. PP. 55-80.

 

Chakraborty, R., and Leimar, O., 1987. Genetic variation population. N. Ryman and F.M.Utter (Eds.), Population Genetics and FisheryManagement. Washington: University of Washington. PP.89-120.

 

Charles, K., Guyomard, R., Hoyheim, B., Ombredane, D., and Baglinière, J.L., 2005. Lack of genetic differentiation between anadromous and resident sympatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Normandy population, Aquaculture Living Resources. (18): 65- 69.

 

Dorafshan, S., 2007. Chromosomal handlings of the Caspian trout (Salmo trutta caspius) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and comparison of the growth in F1. Partial Fulfillment for Degree of fisheriy Ph.D. College of Marine Science. Tarbiat Modares University, PP. 46-52.

 

Ferguson, A., Taggart, J. B., Prodohl,P. A., McMeel, O., Thompson, C., Stone, C., McGinnity, P. and Hynes, R.A., 1995. The application of molecular markers to the study and conservation of fish populations, with special reference to Salmo.Journal of Fish Biology. (47): 103-126.

 

Goudet, J., 2001. FSTAT, a program to estimateand test gene diversities and fixationindices(version(2)(9)3).Availablefrom http://www.unil.ch/izea/softwares/fstat.html

 

Hansen, M.M., Ruzzante, D.E., Nielsen, E.E. and Mensberg, K.L.D., 2000.Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism Reveals Life-History Dependent interbreeding between Hatchery and Wild Brown Kalbassi et al., 15Trout (Salmo trutta L.). Molecular Ecology. (9): 583-594.

 

Hassanien, H.A., Elnady, M. Obeida, A. and Itriby, H., 2004. Genetic diversity of Nile Tilapia revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Aquaculture Research. (35): 587-593.

 

Jug, T., Berrebi, P. and Snoj, A., 2005. Distribution of non-Native Trout in Slovenia and their Introgression with Native Trout Population as Observed through Microsatellite. Biological Conservation. (123): 381-388.

 

Kiabi, B.H., Abdoli, A. and Naderi, M., 1999. Status of the fish fauna in the South Caspian basin of Iran. Journal of Zoology. (18): 57-65.

 

Laikre, L., 1999. Conservation Genetic Management of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in Europe, Division in Population Genetics, Stockholm University, Sweden, pp. 5-50.

 

Navidi Moghadam Foumani, R., 2005. Investiagation of Genetic variation in Caspian salmon (Salmo trutta caspius) populations of Tonekabon by using microsatellite markers, MSc thesis, science faculty, The university of Guilan, PP. 63.

 

Nei, M., 1978. Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics. (89): 583- 590.

 

Neigel, J.E., 1997. A comparison of alternative strategies for estimating gene flow from genetic markers. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. (28): 105-128.

 

Northcote T.G., 1997. Potamodromy in Salmonidae: living and moving in the fast lane. North American Journal of Fisheries Management (17): 1029–1045.

 

Ostergren, J., 2006. Migration and genetic structure of Salmo salar and Salmo truttain Northern Swedish rivers. PHD thesis, Faculty of forest science, Department of aquaculture science, Umea, Swedish university.

 

Peakall, R. and Smouse, P. E. 2006. GENALEX6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Nolecular Ecology Notes. (6): 288-295.

 

Rafiee, A., 2006. Investiagation of Caspian salmon (Salmo trutta caspius) Genetic variation, MSc thesis, science faculty, The university of Guilan. PP. 102.

 

Raymond, M. and Rousset, F., 1995. An exact test for population differentiation. Evolution. (49): 1280-1283.

 

Raymond, M. and Rousset, F., 2004. GENEPOP. http://www.wbio-med.curtin.edu.au/genepop. Ryman, N. and Laikre, L., 1991. Effects of supportive breeding on the genetically effective population size. Conservation Biology. (5): 325–329.

 

Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F and Maniatis, T., 1989. Electrophoresis of RNA through Gels Containing Formaldehyde: Molecular Cloning, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: CSH Laboratory Press. pp. 743–745.

 

Sonstebo, J.H., Borgstrom, R. and Heun, M., 2007. Genetic Structure of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) from the Hardangervidda Mountain Plateau (Norway) Analyzed by Microsatellite DNA: A Basis for Conservation Guidelines. Conservation Genetic. (8): 33- 44.

 

Verspoor, E. and Jordan, W.C. 1989. Genetic variation at the Me- 2 locus in the Atlantic salmon within and between rivers: evidence for its selective maintenance. Journal of Fish Biology. (35): 205- 213.

 

Wright, B.S. 1951. The genetical structure of populations Annual Eugenics. (15): 323-354.