Heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in tissue, liver of Esox lucius and sediment from the Anzali international lagoon- Iran

Authors

1 Dept. of Fishery, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Someh Sara, Iran

2 Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Someh Sara, Iran

3 Dept. of Fishery, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Someh Sara, Iran.

4 Dept. of Fishery, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Someh Sara, Iran. * Corresponding author’s E-mail: javidiman@guilan.ac.ir

Abstract

Levels of contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of the potential risk to humans consuming them. This paper examines the levels of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper in liver and muscle tissue of Esox lucius and in sediments from the Anzali international wetland in Iran. The wetland is a nursery and feeding habitat for fish species both from the lagoon and the Caspian Sea, which are consumed by the local inhabitants and others. Eleven main rivers discharge agricultural, industrial, urban and municipal wastes into this wetland. Twenty five Esox lucius specimens, with a mean weight of 804.6?121g and mean length of 430.7? 2mm were collected from the wetland by multimesh gill nets in September and December 2007.. The age was determined from scale samples according to the annual ring structure. Average concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn accumulated in the mid-dorsal muscle tissue (filleted and skinned) of fish were 0.001, 0.21?0.02, 0.13?0.01 and 2.55?0.18 ?g.g-1, respectively. The concentrations of these metals in liver samples were Cd: 0.0014? Cu: 0.96? 0.61, Pb: 0.11 ? 0.04 and Zn: 2.46?1.5 ?g.g-1. Significant positive correlations were detected between Zn and Cu with body weight, while negative correlations were found between Pb and body weight. The concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd were below the maximum allowable concentrations for fish proposed by WHO and MAFF (safe for human consumption) but concentration of Pb exceeded the standard levels.
 
REFERENCES
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Bervoets, L., Ronny Blust (2003). Metal concentrations in water, sediment and gudgeon (Gobio gobio) from a pollution gradient: relationship with fish condition factor Environmental Pollution. 126:9–19
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Evans DW, Dodoo DK, Hanson PJ (1993).Trace element concentrations in fish livers: implications of variations with fish size in pollution monitoring. Mar Pollut Bull. 26: 329– 34.
Fagerstrom T. (1977). Body weight, metabolic rate and tracesubstance turnover in animals. Oecologia (Berlin). 29: 99–104.
Falcó, G., Llobet, J.M., Bocio, A., Domingo, J.L., (2006). Daily intake of arsenic, camdium, mercury, and lead by consumption of edible marine species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54: 6106–6112.
Farkas, A., Sala´nki, J., Speczia´ r, A., (2003). Age- and size-specific patterns of heavy metals in the organs of freshwater fish Abramis brama L. populating a lowcontaminated site. Water Research .37: 959–964.
Farkas A. (1993). Preparation of samples for heavy metal analyses and measuring heavy metals. In: Sallanki J, Istv!anovics V, editors. Limnological bases of lake management: 160–63.
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MAFF ( 2000). Monitoring and surveillance of non-radioactive contaminants in the aquatic environment and activities regulating the disposal of wastes at sea, 1997. Aquatic Environment Monitoring Report No. 52. Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, UK.
Newman MC, Doubet DK. (1989). Sizedependence of mercury (II) accumulation kinetics in the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.18:819–25.
Oomen, C.M., Feskens, E.J., Räsänen, L., Fidanza, F., Nissinem, A.M., Menotti, A., Kok, F.J., Kromhout, D., (2000). Fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality in Finland, Italy and The Netherlands. Am. J. Epidemiol. 151:999– 1006.
Perkin Elmer (1981). Analytical Methods for Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Using the Mercury/Hydride System. Instrument Division, Perkin ElmerCorporation, Norwalk, CT. Proceedings of the ILEC/UNEP International Training Course 24 May–5 June (1993). Tihany, Hungary, ILEC Kusatsu Shiga, Japan.
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Sankar, T. V., Zynudheen, A. A., Anandan, R., & Viswanathan Nair, P. G. (2006). Distribution of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metal residues in fish and shellfish from Calicut region, Kerala, India. Chemosphere. 65:583–590.
Shul’man GE. (1974) Life cycles of fish. New York: Wiley, UNEP Guidelines for monitoring chemical contaminants in the sea using marine organisms (1993). Reference methods for marine pollution studies, Report 6, Athens.
 Uthe, JF, Chou, CL, Misra, RK, Yeats, PA, Loring, DH, Musial, CJ (1991). Temporal trend monitoring: introduction to the study of contaminant levels in marine biota. ICES Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences, Report 14, Copenhagen.
Vladykov, V.D (1964).Inland fisheries resources of Iran especially of the Caspian Sea with special reference to sturgeon. Report to the Government of Iran. FAO Report 1818, 51 p.
Weatherly AH, Gill HS (1987). The biology of fish growth. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Yilmaz, A. B. (2005). Comparison of Heavy metal levels of Grey Mullet (Mugil cephalus L.) and Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) caught in Iskenderun Bay (Turkey). Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 29: 257–262.
 

Keywords


Arishnamurty KV Andreji, J., Stránai, I., Massàyi, P., Valent, M., (2006)Accumulation of some metals in muscles of five fish species from Lower Nitra River. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A. 41, 2607–2622.

 

Bagenal TB, Tesch FW. (1978) Age and growth. In: Bagenal TB, editor. Methods for assessment of fish production in fresh waters, IBP Handbook, Oxford, London, Edinburgh, Melbourne: Blackwell Scientific Publications. 3: 101–36

 

Bervoets, L., Ronny Blust (2003). Metal concentrations in water, sediment and gudgeon (Gobio gobio) from a pollution gradient: relationship with fish condition factor Environmental Pollution. 126:9–19

 

Burger and Gochfeld (2005). Heavy metals in commercial fish in New Jersey, Environmental Research. 99:403–412.

 

Domingo, J.L., Bocio, A., Flaco, G., Llobet, J.M (2007). Benefits and risks of fish consumption. Part I. A quantitative analysis of the intake of omega-3 fatty acids and chemical contaminants. Toxicology. 230: 219–226.

 

Evans DW, Dodoo DK, Hanson PJ ( 1993) .Trace element concentrations in fish livers: implications of variations with fish size in pollution monitoring. Mar Pollut Bull. 26: 329– 34.

 

Fagerstrom T. (1977). Body weight, metabolic rate and tracesubstance turnover in animals. Oecologia (Berlin). 29:99–104.

 

Falcó, G., Llobet, J.M., Bocio, A., Domingo, J.L.,( 2006). Daily intake of arsenic, camdium, mercury, and lead by consumption of edible marine species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:6106–6112.

 

Farkas, A., Sala ́nki, J., Speczia ́ r, A., (2003). Age- and size-specific patterns of heavy metals in the organs of freshwater fish Abramis brama L. populating a low-contaminated site. Water Research .37: 959–964.

 

Farkas A. (1993). Preparation of samples for heavy metal analyses and measuring heavy metals. In: Sal!anki J, Istv!anovics V, editors. Limnological bases of lake management: 160–63.

 

Guven, K., Zbay, C., Unlu, E., & Satar, A. (1999). Acute lethal toxicity and accumulation of copper in Gammarus pulex (L.) (Amphipoda). Turkish Journal of Biology. 23: 513–521

 

Has-Schön, E., Bogut, I., Strelec, I(2006) . Heavy metal profile in five fish species included in human diet, domiciled in the end flow of River Neretva (Croatia). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 50: 545–551.

 

Hatch WR, Ott WL (1968). Determination of Imanpour Namin et al., 7submicrogram quantities of mercury by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Anal Chem.40:2085–7.

 

Henry, F., R. Amara, L. Courcot, D. Lacouture, M.-L. Bertho (2004). Heavy metals in four fish species from the French coast of the Eastern English Channel and Southern Bight of the North Sea, Environment International. 30 :675– 683

 

Kalay, M., Canlı, M ( 2000). Elimination of essential (Cu and Zn) and non-essential (Cd and Pb) metals from tissue of a freshwater fish, Tilapia zilli. Tr. J. Zool. 24: 429– 436.

 

Krishnamurty KV, Shprit EE, Reddy MM. (1976). Trace metal extraction of soils and sediments by nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide. Atmos Absorp Newslett.15: 68–70.

 

Kimball, K.D. and S.F.Kimball, (1974). The limnology of the Pahlavi Mordab, Iran: A study of eutrofication problems. Technical Report. Iranian Department of the environment, Tehran:43 p (Mimeo)

 

Kinsella, J.E., Lokesh, B., Stone (2002). R.A Dietary n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in amelioration of Kris-Etherton, P.M., Harris,W.S., Appel, L.J.,. Fish consumption, fish oil. Omega- 3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation .106: 2747–2757.

 

Lee, Y. H.,& Stuebing, R. B (1990). Heavy metal contamination in the River Toad, Bufo juxtesper (Inger), near a copper mine in East Malaysia. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 45:272–279.

 

MAFF( 2000). Monitoring and surveillance of non-radioactive contaminants in the aquatic environment and activities regulating the disposal of wastes at sea, 1997. Aquatic Environment Monitoring Report No. 52. Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, UK. Newman MC, Doubet DK. (1989).

 

Size-dependence of mercury (II) accumulation kinetics in the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.18:819–25.

 

Oomen, C.M., Feskens, E.J., Räsänen, L., Fidanza, F., Nissinem, A.M., Menotti, A., Kok, F.J., Kromhout, D., (2000). Fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality in Finland, Italy and The Netherlands. Am. J. Epidemiol. 151:999–1006.

 

Perkin Elmer (1981). Analytical Methods for Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Using the Mercury/Hydride System. Instrument Division, Perkin Elmer- Corporation, Norwalk, CT. Proceedings of the ILEC/UNEP International Training Course 24 May–5 June( 1993). Tihany, Hungary, ILEC Kusatsu Shiga, Japan. Rashed, M. N. (2001). Monitoring of environmental heavy metals in fish from Nasser Lake. Environment International. 27: 27–33.

 

Sankar, T. V., Zynudheen, A. A., Anandan, R., & Viswanathan Nair, P. G. (2006). Distribution of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metal residues in fish and shellfish from Calicut region, Kerala, India. Chemosphere. 65:583–590.

 

Shul’man GE.( 1974) Life cycles of fish. New York: Wiley,. UNEP Guidelines for monitoring chemical contaminants in the sea using marine organisms (1993). Reference methods for marine pollution studies, Report 6, Athens Uthe, JF, Chou, CL,

 

Misra, RK, Yeats, PA, Loring, DH, Musial, CJ (1991) .Temporal trend monitoring: introduction to the study of contaminant levels in marine biota. ICES Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences, Report 14, Copenhagen;.

 

Vladykov, V.D(1964).Inland fisheries resources of Iran especially of the Caspian Sea with special reference to sturgeon. Report to the Government of Iran. FAO Report.1818:51 p.

 

Weatherly AH, Gill HS( 1987). The biology of fish growth. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

 

Yilmaz, A. B. (2005). Comparison of Heavy metal levels of Grey Mullet (Mugil cephalus L.) and Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) caught in Iskenderun Bay (Turkey). Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 29: 257–262.