Influence of gap size and development stages on the silvicultural characteristics of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) regeneration

Authors

1 Dept. of Forestry, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran.

3 Faculty of Natural Resources, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. * Corresponding author’s E-mail: parhizkar@rifr-ac.ir

Abstract

We studied 11 gaps covered with beech saplings (< 1.30 m tall) in a reserve compartment (compartment 139, district one, Langa forest, watershed 36: Kazemrood) of the Caspian beech forest in N Iran. Two transects, each 2 m wide, were laid along the longest (N-S) and shortest (E-W) axis of each gap. Five micro sample plots, each 4 m2, were established: one at the center, and one at each corner. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of saplings with a diameter at breast height less than 7.5 cm were examined in the micro sample plots. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed using SPSS software for quantitative characteristics, and chi-square test for qualitative characteristics. Results indicated that medium-sized (200-500 m2) gaps promote the growth of oriental beech saplings of desirable silvicultural forms during decay and initial stages.
 
REFERENCES
Anonymous, (1998) Forestry plan of district one in Langa region, watershed number 36 (Kazemrood), Noshahr natural resources office, 450 p.
Chazdon, R.L. and Fetcher, N. (1984) Light environments of tropical forests. In “Physiological Ecology of Plants of the Wet Tropics” (E. Medina, H.A. Mooney, and C. Vasquez-Yanes, Eds.), pp. 27-36.
 W. Junk, The Hague. Denslow, J.S. and Hartshorn, G.S. (1994) Tree-fall gap environments and forest dynamic processes. In “La Selva: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rain Forest” (L.A. McDade, K.S. Bawa, H.A. Hespenheide, and G.S. Hartshorn, Eds.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 120-127.
Emborg, J., Christensen, M. and Heilmannclusen, J. (2000) The structural dynamics of suserup skov, anear natural temperate decidous forest in Denmark. For. Ecol. Manage. 126, 173-189.
Huth, F. and Wagner, S. (2006) Gap structure and establishment of Silver birch regeneration (Betula pendula Roth.) in Norway spruce stands (Picea abies L. Karst.). For. Ecol. Manage. 229, 314–324.
Korpel, S. (1995) Die Urwaelder der Westkarpaten. Gustav Fischerrt, Verlag, Stuttgart, 310 p.
Lee, R. (1978) “Forest Microclimatology.” Columbia University Press, New York. Lawton, R.O. (1990) Canopy gaps and light penetration into a wind-exposed tropical lower montane rain forest. Can. J. For. Rese. 20, 659–667.
Lowman, M.D. and Rinker, H.B. (2004) Forest Canopy. Elsevier Academic Press. 517p.
Madsen, P. and Larsen, J.B. (1997) Natural regeneration of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) with respect to canopy density, soil moisture and soil carbon content. For. Ecol. Manage. 97, 103–113.
Marvie Mohadjer, M.R. (1975) The study of relation between morphological parameters of beech tree and site. Tehran University, J. Nat. Reso. Col. 32, 15-29.
Marvie Mohadjer, M.R. (1976) Study of beech forest qualitative characteristics in north of Iran. Tehran University, J. Nat. Reso. Col. 34, 77-96.
Naaf, T. and Wulf, M. (2007) Effects of gap size, light and herbivory on the herb layer vegetation in the European beech forest gaps. For. Ecol. Manage. 244, 141- 149.
Roloff, V.A., (1986) Morphologische Untersuchungen zum Wachstum und Verzweigungssystem der Rotbuche (Fagus sylvatica L.). Mitt. Dtsch. Dendrol. Ges. 76, 5-47.
 Rubin, B.D., Manion, P.D., FaberLangendoen, D. (2006) Diameter distributions and structural sustainability in forests. For. Ecol. Manage. 222, 427- 438.
Sagheb-Talebi, Kh. (1996) Quantitative and qualitative Merkmale von Buchen– jungwuechsen (Fagus sylvatica L.) unter dem Einfluss des Lichtes und anderer Standorts Faktoren. Schweiz. Z. Forstwes. 78, 219 p.
Sagheb-Talebi, Kh. and Schütz, J.P. (2006) Some criteria of regeneration density in young beech populations. International conference, IUFRO, WP 1.01.07, Ecology and silviculture of beech, Poiana Brasov, Romania, 85-87.
Shahnavzi, H., Sagheb-Talebi, Kh. and Zahedi-Amiri, Gh. (2005) Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of natural regeneration in gaps within beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands of Caspian Region. For. Pop. Rese. 13(2), 141-154.
Schütz, J.P. (1990) Sylvicultur 1. Principes déducation des forêts. Press. Polytech. et Uni. Romandes. Swiss, 243 p.
Wijdeven, S.M.J. (2003) Comparative Studies of Gap-phase Regeneration in Managed and Natural Beech Forests in Different parts of Europe: The Netherlands. NATMAN, Working Report. 35, 16 p.
Zhu, J.j., Matsuzaki, T., Lee, F.Q. and Gonda, Y. (2003) Effect of gap size created by thinning on seedling emergency, survival and establishment in a coastal pine forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 182, 339-354.
 

Keywords


Anonymous, (1998) Forestry plan of district one in Langa region, watershed number 36 (Kazemrood), Noshahr natural resources office, 450p.

 

Chazdon, R.L. and Fetcher, N. (1984) Light environments of tropical forests. In “Physiological Ecology of Plants of the Wet Tropics” (E. Medina, H.A. Mooney, and C. Vasquez-Yanes, Eds.), pp. 27–36. W. Junk, The Hague.

 

Denslow, J.S. and Hartshorn, G.S. (1994) Tree-fall gap environments and forest dynamic processes. In “La Selva: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rain Forest” (L.A. McDade, K.S. Bawa, H.A. Hespenheide, and G.S. Hartshorn, Eds.), pp. 120–127. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

 

Emborg, J., Christensen, M. and Heilmann-clusen, J. (2000) The structural dynamics of suserup skov, anear natural temperate decidous forest in Denmark. For. Ecol. Manage.126, 173-189. silvicultural characteristics of oriental beech64

 

Huth, F. and Wagner, S. (2006) Gap structure and establishment of Silver birch regeneration (Betula pendula Roth.) in Norway spruce stands (Picea abies L. Karst.). For. Ecol. Manage. 229, 314–324. Korpel, S. (1995) Die Urwaelder der Westkarpaten.

 

Gustav Fischerrt, Verlag, Stuttgart, 310 p. Lee, R. (1978) “Forest Microclimatology.” Columbia University Press, New York.

 

Lawton, R.O. (1990) Canopy gaps and light penetration into a wind-exposed tropical lower montane rain forest. Can. J. For. Rese.20, 659–667.

 

Lowman, M.D. and Rinker, H.B. (2004) Forest Canopy. Elsevier Academic Press. 517p.

 

Madsen, P. and Larsen, J.B. (1997) Natural regeneration of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) with respect to canopy density, soil moisture and soil carbon content. For. Ecol. Manage.97, 103–113.

 

Marvie Mohadjer, M.R. (1975) The study of relation between morphological parameters of beech tree and site. Tehran University, J. Nat. Reso. Col. 32, 15-29.

 

Marvie Mohadjer, M.R. (1976) Study of beech forest qualitative characteristics in north of Iran. Tehran University, J. Nat. Reso. Col. 34, 77-96.

 

Naaf, T. and Wulf, M. (2007) Effects of gap size, light and herbivory on the herb layer vegetation in the European beech forest gaps. For. Ecol. Manage. 244, 141-149.

 

Roloff, V.A., (1986) Morphologische Untersuchungen zum Wachstum und Verzweigungssystem der Rotbuche (Fagus sylvatica L.). Mitt. Dtsch. Dendrol. Ges.76, 5-47.

 

Rubin, B.D., Manion, P.D., Faber-Langendoen, D. (2006) Diameter distributions and structural sustainability in forests. For. Ecol. Manage.222, 427– 438.

 

Sagheb-Talebi, Kh. (1996) Quantitative and qualitative Merkmale von Buchen– jungwuechsen (Fagus sylvatica L.) unter dem Einfluss des Lichtes und anderer Standorts Faktoren. Schweiz. Z.Forstwes. 78, 219p.

 

Sagheb-Talebi, Kh. and Schütz, J.P. (2006) Some criteria of regeneration density in young beech populations. International conference, IUFRO, WP 1.01.07, Ecology and silviculture of beech, Poiana Brasov, Romania, 85-87.

 

Shahnavzi, H., Sagheb-Talebi, Kh. and Zahedi-Amiri, Gh. (2005) Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of natural regeneration in gaps within beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands of Caspian Region. For. Pop. Rese.13(2), 141-154.

 

Schütz, J.P. (1990) Sylvicultur 1. Principes déducation des forêts. Press. Polytech. et Uni. Romandes. Swiss, 243 p.

 

Wijdeven, S.M.J. (2003) Comparative Studies of Gap-phase Regeneration in Managed and Natural Beech Forests in Different parts of Europe: The Netherlands. NAT-MAN, Working Report. 35, 16p.

 

Zhu, J.j., Matsuzaki, T., Lee, F.Q. and Gonda, Y. (2003) Effect of gap size created by thinning on seedling emergency, survival and establishment in a coastal pine forest. For. Ecol. Manage.182, 339–354.