Effect of age on reproductive performance in female Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspious, Kessler 1877)

Authors

1 Dept. of Fisheries Sciences, Natural Resources Faculty, Islamic Azad University of Lahijan, Iran.

2 Restocking of Salmonids, Centre of Shahid Bahonar, Kelardasht, Iran.

3 Young Researcher Club, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan Branch, P. O. Box: 1616, Iran. *Corresponding author’s E-mail: Mina.rahbar1363@gmail.com

Abstract

Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) is one of the economically valuable species in the Caspian Sea. Artificial propagation and production of larvae are the main problems in the early culture of this species. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of reproductive performance of female broods on opposition reproduction efficiency in Caspian brown trout in the breeding season of 2009. Three groups of female broods (4, 5 and 6 years old) were fertilized with 9 male fish individually. The results showed that, 6 year old females have maximum body weight (2150.0 ± 86.6 g), total length (59?2 cm), eggs weight (255.0 ? 30.51 g), egg size (5.37 ? 0.058 mm) and absolute fecundity rate (3060 ± 366.15), while highest average number of ovules in each gram of body weight (16.33 ± 0.58) and relative fecundity (2.08 ± 0.12) belonged to 4 years old females. There were significant differences in mean fertilization rate and survival rate until absorption of yolk sack stage (p<0.05) among the treatments studied. The present study showed that the eggs produced from fertilization of 6 year old female eggs and male mixed milt showed maximum average fertilization percentage (97.5 %), survival rate until eyed stage (92%), hatching percentage (93%), and survival rate until absorption of yolk sack (94.5%).
 
 
REFERENCES
Aas, G.H., Refstie, T., Gjerde, B. (1991) Evaluation of milt quality of Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture, 95: 125-132.
Alp, A., Kara, C., Bueyuekcapar, H.M. (2003) Reproductive biology of brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma, Dumeril 1858) in a tributary of the Ceyhan River Which flows into the eastern Mediterranian Sea. J. Appl. Ichthyol. / Z. Angew. Ichthyol. Vol. 19, no.6, pp. 346-351.
Bagenal, T.B. (1969) The relationship between food supply and fecundity in brown trout Salmo trutta L. J. Fish Biol. 1: 167-182.
Baum, E.T., Meister, A.L. (1971) Fecundity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from two Maine rivers. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 28: 764-767.
Beacham, T.D., Murray, C.B. (1985) Effect of female size, egg size, and water temperature on developmental biology of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) from the Nitinat River , British Columbia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42: 1755-1765.
Belding, D.L. (1940) The number of eggs and pyloric appendages as criteria of river varieties of the Atlantic salmon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 67: 285-289.
Billard, R. and Gillet, c. (1981) Aging of eggs and temperature potentialization of micropollutant effecs of the aquatic medium on trout gamets. Cah. Lab. Hydrobiol. Montreau, 12: 35-42.
Blaxter, J.H.S., Hempel, G. (1963) The influence of egg size on herring larvae (Cluplea harengus). J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 28, 211-240.
Bozkurt, Y., Seçer, S., Bejcan, S. (2006) Relationship between spermatozoa motility, egg size, fecundity and fertilization success in Salmo trutta abanticus. Tarim bilimleri dergisi, 12: 345-348.
Brannas, E., Brannas, K., Eriksson, L. O. (1985) Egg characteristics and hatchery survival in a Baltic salmon, Salmo salar L., population. Rept. Inst. Freshw. Res.
Drottning holm 62: 5-11. Bromage, N.R., Cumaranataunga, R. (1988) Egg production in the rainbow trout, In Recent advances in Aquaculture, Vol: 3., Muir, J.F, R.J., Robert, (Eds.), pp: 63-139.
Erkinaro, J., Dempson, J.B., Julkunen, M., Niemela, E. (1997) Importance of ontogenetic habitat shifts to juvenile output and life history of Atlantic salmon in a large subarctic river: an approach based on analysis of scale characteristics. J. Fish Biol. 51: 1174-1185.
Eskelinen, U., Ruohonen, K. (1989) Reproduction parameters of hatcheryreared Atlantic salmon broodstocks and a model to optimize the rearing cycle. In: De Pauw N., Jaspers. E., Ackefors. H. and N. Wilkins (eds.), Aquaculture a biotechnology in progress, European Aquaculture Society, Brendene, Belgium, pp. 507-516.
Fowler, L.G. (1972) Growth and mortality of fingerling Chinook salmon as affected by egg size. Prog. Fish-cult. 34: 66-69.
Gall, G.A.E. (1974) Influence of size of eggs and age of female on hatchability and growth in rainbow trout. Calif. Fish Game. Vol. 60, No. 1, pp. 26-35.
Gisbert, E., Williot, P., Castello Orvay, F. (1999) Influence of egg size on growth and survival of early stages of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri) under small scale hatchery conditions. Aquaculture, 183: 83-94.
Heinimaa, S., Heinimaa, P. (2004) Effect of the female size on egg quality and fecundity of the wild Atlantic salmon in the sub- arctic River Teno. Boreal Environment Research, 9: 55-62.
kayam, S. (2004) The Effect of Mating Different Age Groups of Broodstocks on the Reproductive Performance, Sex Ratio, Growth and Survival Rate of Rainbow Trout. J. Freshwat. Ecol. Vol. 19, No.4, pp. 695-699.
Kazakov, R.V. (1981) The effect of the size of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., eggs on embryos and alevins. J. Fish Biol. 19: 353-360.
Kjorsvik, E., Mangor-Jensen, A., Holmetjord, I. (1990) Egg quality in fishes. In: Blaxter, J.H.S., Southward, A.J.(Eds.), Adv. Mar. Biol., 26:71-113.
Kunin, M.A., Markevich, N.B. (1978) On the quality of eggs of pink salmon acclimatized in the basins of the Barents and White Seas. Problems of fish physiology., Voprosy fiziologii ryb., Publ. by: VNIRO; Moscow (USSR)., pp. 85-94.
Lahnsteiner, F., Weismann, T., Patzner, R.A. (1999) Physiological and biochemical parameters for egg quality determination in lake trout Salmo trutta lacustris. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 20: 375- 388.
Lahnsteiner, F. (2000) Morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters characterizing the overripening of rainbow trout eggs, fish physiology and biochemistry. 23: 107- 118.
Lobon-Cervia, J., Utrilla, C.G., Rincon, P.A., Amezcua, F. (1997) Environmentally induced spatio-temporal variations in the fecundity of brown trout Salmo trutta L.: tradeoffs between egg size and number. Freshwater Biology. 38: 277-288.
Marteinsdottir, G., Steinarsson, A. (1998) Maternal influence on the size and viability of Iceland cod Gadus morhua eggs and larvae. J. Fish Biol. 52, 1241- 1258.
Mojazi, A.B., Bahrekazemi, M., Pousti, I., Vilaki, A. S. (2005) A histological study on the development of the digestive tract of Caspian brown trout, Salmo trutta caspius (Kessleri), from hatching to Parr stage. I.F.R.O., 5: 63-84.
Morita, K., Yamamoto, S., Takashima, Y., Matsuishi, T., Kanno, Y., Nishimura, K. (1999) Effect of maternal growth history on egg number and size in wild whitespotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: 1585-1589.
Ojanguren, A.F., Reyes-Gavilan, F.G., Brana, F. (1996) Effects of egg size on offspring development and fitness in brown trout, Salmo trutta L. Aquaculture. 147: 9-20.
Olofsson, H. and Mosegaard, H. (1999) Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromus brown trout. Ecol. Freshwater Fish. 8: 59- 64.
Pitman, R. W. (1979) Effects of female age and egg size on growth and mortality in rainbow trout. Prog. Fish-cult. 41: 202-204.
Quinn, T.P., Bloomberg, S. (1992) Fecundity of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the Waitaki and Rakaia Rivers, New Zealand. N. Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res., 26: 429-434.
Shamspour, S., Nezami, Sh.A., Khara, H., Golshahi, H. (2009) Effect of age on reproductive performance in female Rainbow trout broods (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum.1972). J. Science Biology. 2: 73-81.
Springate, J.R.C., Bromage, N.R. (1985) Effects of egg size on early growth and Survival in rainbow trout (Salmo garidneri Richardson). Aquaculture. 47, 163-172.
Springate, J.R.C., Bromage, N.R., Cumaranatunga, P.R.T. (1985) the effects of different ration on fecundity and egg quality in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Nutrition and Feeding in Fish. pp. 371-393.
Springate, J.R.C. (1990) Egg quality and fecundity in rainbow trout: The determining factors and mechanisms of control. (DISS. ABST. INT. PT. B - SCI. & ENG.), Vol. 51, No. 4, 265 p.
Thorpe, J.E., Miles, M.S., Keay, D.S. (1984) Developmental rate, fecundity and egg size in Atlantic salmon, (Salmo salar L.) Aquaculture, 43: 289-305.
Wallace, J.C., Asjord, D. (1984) An investigation of the consequences of the egg size for the culture of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). J. Fish Biol., 24, 427- 435.

Keywords


Aas, G.H., Refstie, T., Gjerde, B. (1991) Evaluation of milt quality of Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture, 95: 125-132.

 

Alp, A., Kara, C., Bueyuekcapar, H.M. (2003) Reproductive biology of brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma, Dumeril 1858) in a tributary of the Ceyhan River Which flows into the eastern Mediterranian Sea. J. Appl. Ichthyol. / Z. Angew. Ichthyol. Vol. 19, no.6,pp.346-351.

 

Bagenal, T.B. (1969) The relationship between food supply and fecundity in brown trout Salmo trutta L. J. Fish Biol. 1: 167-182.

 

Baum, E.T., Meister, A.L. (1971) Fecundity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from two Maine rivers. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 28: 764-767.

 

Beacham, T.D., Murray, C.B. (1985) Effect of female size, egg size, and water temperature on developmental biology of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) from the Nitinat River , British Columbia. Can.J.Fish.Aquat. Sci. 42: 1755-1765.

 

Belding, D.L. (1940) The number of eggs and pyloric appendages as criteria of river varieties of the Atlantic salmon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 67: 285-289.

 

Billard, R. and Gillet, c. (1981) Aging of eggs and temperature potentialization of micropollutant effecs of the aquatic medium on trout gamets. Cah. Lab. Hydrobiol. Montreau,12 : 35-42.

 

 Blaxter, J.H.S., Hempel, G. (1963) The influence of egg size on herring larvae (Cluplea harengus). J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 28, 211-240.

 

Bozkurt, Y., Seçer, S., Bejcan, S. (2006) Relationship between spermatozoa motility , egg size, fecundity and fertilization success in Salmo trutta abanticus. Tarim bilimleri dergisi,12: (4). 345-348.

 

Brannas, E., Brannas, K., Eriksson, L. O. (1985) Egg characteristics and hatchery survival in a Baltic salmon, Salmo salarL., population. Rept. Inst. Freshw. Res . Drottning holm 62: 5-11.

 

Bromage, N.R., Cumaranataunga, R. (1988) Egg production in the rainbow trout, In Recent advances in Aquaculture, vol: 3., Muir, J.F, R.J., Robert, Eds, pp: 63-139.

 

 Erkinaro, J., Dempson, J.B., Julkunen, M., Niemela, E. (1997) Importance of ontogenetic habitat shifts to juvenile output and life history of Atlantic salmon in a large subarctic river: an approach based on analysis of scale characteristics. J. Fish Biol. 51: 1174-1185.

 

Eskelinen, U., Ruohonen, K. (1989) Reproduction parameters of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon broodstocks and a model to optimize the rearing cycle. In: De Pauw N., Jaspers. E., Ackefors. H. and N. Wilkins (eds), Aquaculture a biotechnology in progress, European Aquaculture Society, Brendene, Belgium, pp.507-516.

 

Fowler, L.G. (1972) Growth and mortality of fingerling Chinook salmon as affected by egg size. Prog. Fish-cult. 34: 66-69.

 

Gall, G.A.E. (1974) Influence of size of eggs and age of female on hatchability and growth in rainbow trout. Calif. Fish Game .Vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 26-35.

 

Gisbert, E., Williot, P., Castello Orvay, F. (1999) Influence of egg size on growth and survival of early stages of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri) under small scale hatchery conditions. Aquaculture, 183: 83-94.

 

Heinimaa, S., Heinimaa, P. (2004) Effect of the female size on egg quality and fecundity of the wild Atlantic salmon in the sub- arctic River Teno. Boreal Effect of age on reproductive performance102Environment Research. 9: 55-62.

 

kayam, S. (2004) The Effect of Mating Different Age Groups of Broodstocks on the Reproductive Performance, Sex Ratio, Growth and Survival Rate of Rainbow Trout. J. Freshwat. Ecol. Vol. 19, no.4, pp.695-699.

 

Kazakov, R.V. (1981) The effect of the size of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., eggs on embryos and alevins. J. Fish Biol. 19: 353-360.

 

Kjorsvik, E., Mangor-Jensen, A., Holmetjord, I. (1990) Egg quality in fishes. In: Blaxter, J.H.S., Southward, A.J.(Eds.), Adv. Mar. Biol., 26:71-113.

 

Kunin, M.A., Markevich, N.B. (1978) On the quality of eggs of pink salmon acclimatized in the basins of the Barents and White Seas. Problems of fish physiology., Voprosy fiziologii ryb., Publ. by: VNIRO; Moscow (USSR)., p. 85-94.

 

Lahnsteiner, F., Weismann, T., Patzner, R.A. (1999) Physiological and biochemical parameters for egg quality determination in lake trout Salmo trutta lacustris. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 20: 375-388.

 

Lahnsteiner, F. (2000) Morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters characterizing the overripening of rainbow trout eggs, fish physiology and biochemistry. 23, pp. 107-118.

 

Lobon-Cervia, J., Utrilla, C.G., Rincon, P.A., Amezcua, F. (1997) Environmentally induced spatio-temporal variations in the fecundity of brown trout Salmo truttaL.: tradeoffs between egg size and number. Freshwater Biology. 38: 277-288.

 

Marteinsdottir, G., Steinarsson, A. (1998) Maternal influence on the size and viability of Iceland cod Gadus morhua eggs and larvae. J. Fish Biol. 52, 1241-1258.

 

Mojazi, A.B., Bahrekazemi, M., Pousti, I., Vilaki, A. S. (2005) A histological study on the development of the digestive tract of Caspian brown trout, Salmo trutta caspius (Kessleri), from hatching to Parr stage. I.F.R.O., 5: 63-84.

 

Morita, K., Yamamoto, S., Takashima, Y., Matsuishi, T., Kanno, Y., Nishimura, K. (1999) Effect of maternal growth history on egg number and size in wild white-spotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: 1585-1589.

 

Ojanguren, A.F., Reyes-Gavilan, F.G., Brana, F. (1996) Effects of egg size on offspring development and fitness in brown trout, Salmo trutta L. Aquaculture. 147: 9-20.

 

Olofsson, H. and Mosegaard, H. (1999) Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromus brown trout. Ecol. Freshwater Fish. 8: 59-64.

 

Pitman, R. W. (1979) Effects of female age and egg size on growth and mortality in rainbow trout. Prog. Fish-cult. 41: 202-204.

 

Quinn, T.P., Bloomberg, S. (1992) Fecundity of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the Waitaki and Rakaia Rivers, New Zealand. N. Z. J. MAR. FRESHWAT. RES, vol. 26, NO. 3-4, PP. 429-434.

 

Shamspour, S., Nezami, Sh.A., Khara, H., Golshahi, H. (2009) Effect of age on reproductive performance in female Rainbow trout broods (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum.1972). J. Science Biology.2 nd year. 2 nd issue, 73-81.

 

Springate, J.R.C., Bromage, N.R. (1985) Effects of egg size on early growth and Survival in rainbow trout (Salmo garidneri Richardson). Aquaculture. 47, 163-172.

 

Springate, J.R.C., Bromage, N.R., Cumaranatunga, P.R.T. (1985) the effects of different ration on fecundity and egg quality in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Nutrition and Feeding in Fish. pp. 371-393.

 

Springate, J.R.C. (1990) Egg quality and fecundity in rainbow trout: The determining factors and mechanisms of control. [DISS. ABST. INT. PT. B - SCI. & ENG.], vol. 51, no. 4, 265 pp.

 

Thorpe, J.E., Miles, M.S., Keay, D.S. (1984) Developmental rate, fecundity and egg size in Atlantic salmon,(salmo salar L.)Aquaculture. 43: 289-305.

 

Wallace, J.C., Asjord, D. (1984) An investigation of the consequences of the egg size for the culture of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). J. Fish Biol. 24, 427-435.