A Comparative Study of Field Gamma-ray Spectrometry by NaI(Tl) and HPGe Detectors in the South Caspian Region

Authors

1 Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Guilan, P.O.Box 1841, Rasht, Iran.

2 Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, The University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1841, Rasht, Iran.

3 Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Guilan, P.O.Box 1841, Rasht, Iran *Corresponding Author's E-mail: sadremomtaz@guilan.ac.ir

Abstract

Natural radionuclides present in soil as well as certain anthropogenic radionuclides released to the environment are the major contributors to terrestrial outdoor exposures. In the assessment of human exposures from environmental radioactivity, besides the conventional method of soil and vegetation sampling combined with laboratory based analyses of environmental media, the other choice would be field spectrometry which is a rapid, efficient and economical means of identification of radionuclides in the environment. Newly developed high resolution solid state gamma-ray detectors provide a state of art means for such a purpose. However, they are relatively expensive, may not provide the highest intrinsic efficiency possible and their use is complicated by the need for cryogenic cooling of the detector. Scintillation detector spectrometry systems are considered to be capable of yielding satisfactory results particularly for natural background measurements at a fraction of cost. This paper describes a comparative study on application of NaI(Tl) scintillation and HPGe solid state systems for in-situ measurements of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs soil inventories at selected regions on the south coast of Caspian Sea, along with the results from laboratory analyses of collected soil samples in the area. Based on in-situ measurement results and field experience, it is concluded that NaI(Tl) spectrometry system provide satisfactory results which might be even improved by incorporating special spectrum analysis techniques, is relatively less expensive and is operationally easier to carry out than either HPGe system or direct laboratory based analyses of soil samples.
 
REFERENCES
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ICRU (1994) Gamma-Ray Spectrometry in the Environment. ICRU Report 53, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Bethesda, MD.
Isinkaye, M.O. and Shitta, M.B.O. (2010) Natural radionuclide content and radiological assessment of clay soils collected from different sites in Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 139, 590-596.
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Miller K.M. (1997) Field gamma-ray spectrometry. In: USDOE-report HASL300, United State Department of Energy, Washington DC.
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Keywords


Abdi, M.R. Hassanzadeh, S. Kamali M.and Raji, H.R. (2009) 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58, 658–662.

 

Ateba, J.F.B. Ateba, P. O. Ben-Bolie, G. H. Abiama, P. E. Abega, C. R. and Mvondo, S. (2010) Natural Background Dose Measurements in South Cameroon. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 140, 81-88.

 

Beck, H. L. (1980) Exposure Rate Conversion Factors for Radionuclides Deposited on the Ground. USDOE Report EML-378, Washington D.C.

 

Beck, H.L. (1978) The physical properties of environmental properties of environmental radiation fields and their utility for interpretation aerial measurements. In: Areal Techniques for Environmental Monitoring, Topical Symp. Proc., Am. Nuc. Soc., Nevada.

 

Beck, H.L. and Planque, G. (1968) The radiation field in air due to distributed gamma-ray sources in the ground. HASL-1g5 Report, US Atomic Energy Commission, NewYork.

 

Beck, H.L. DeCampo, J. and Gogolak, C. (1972) In-situ Ge(Li) and NaI(Tl) Gamma-ray Spectrometry. HASL-258, Health and Safety Laboratory, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, New York.

 

Cooper, J.R., Randle, K.and Sokhi, R.S. (2003) Radioactive Releases in the Environment: Impact and Assessment. John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex.

 

East, L.V. Phillips, R.L. Strong, A.R. (1982)A Fresh Approach to NaI Scintillation Detector Spectrum Analysis. Nucl. Inst. Methods, 193, 147-155.

 

EPA (2006) Approved Methods for Radionuclides. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,

 

D.C. Sadremomtaz et al., 209Fattahi, E. (2005) Calibration of in-situ gamma spectrometry systems. M.Sc. Thesis, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, 2005.

 

Faw, R.E. and Shultis, J.K. (1993) Radiological Assessment: Sources and Exposures. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

 

Garcia, M. and Madurga, G. (1990) Low-Level Measurements of Radionuclides in the Environment. World Scientific, Singapore.

 

Gilmore, G.R. (2008) Practical Gamma-ray Spectrometry - 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex.

 

Hakimian, M. (1977). American journal of Soil Society, 41, 1155−1161.

 

Helfer, I.K. and Miller I.K. (1988) Calibration factor for field spectrometry. Health Phys. 55, 15-29.

 

IAEA (1989) Construction and Use of Calibration Facilities for Radiometric Field Equipment. International Atomic Energy Agency, Technical Report Series No. 309, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. ICRU (1994) Gamma-Ray Spectrometry in the Environment. ICRU Report 53, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Bethesda, MD.

 

Isinkaye, M.O. and Shitta, M.B.O. (2010) Natural Radionuclide Content and Radiological Assessment of Clay Soils Collected From Different Sites in Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 139, pp, 590-596.

 

Klement, A.W. (1982) CRC Handbook of Environmental Radiation. CRC Press, Florida. MARLAP (2004) Multi-Agency Radiological Laboratory Analytical Protocols Manual. NUREG-1576, Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Washington D.C.

 

McLaughlin, J.P. Simopoulos, E.S. Steinhäusler, F. (2005) The Natural Radiation Environment VII. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Miller K.M. (1997) Field gamma-ray spectrometry. In: USDOE-report HASL-300, United State Department of Energy, Washington D.C.

 

Miller K.M. and Shebell P. (1993) In-situ gamma-ray spectrometry: A tutorial for environmental radiation scientists. United State Department of Energy, USDOE-report, EML-557.

 

NCRP (1987) Exposure of the Population in the United States and Canada from Natural Background Radiation, Report 94, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, D.C.

 

NCRP (2006) Cesium-137 in the Environment: Radioecology and Approaches to Assessment and Management. Report 154, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD.

 

Petrinec, B. Franić, Z. Leder, N. Tsabaris, C. Bituh, T. Marović, G.(2010) Gamma Radiation and Dose Rate Investigations on the Adriatic Islands of Magmatic Origin. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 139, 551-559.

 

Saito, K. and Jacob, P. (1995) Gamma ray fields in the air due to sources in the ground. Radiat. Prot. Dosim.58, 29–45.

 

Tyler, A.N. (2008) In situ and airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. In: Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides, edited by P.P. Povinec. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

 

UNSCEAR (2000) Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Report to the General Assembly,

 

United Nations, New York. Zombori, P. (1995) A new method for the determination of radionuclide distribution in the soil by in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry. In: Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples. International Atomic Energy Agency report, IAEA/AL/088, Vienna.