Effects of impervious surfaces and urban development on runoff generation and flood hazard in the Hajighoshan watershed


1 Azad University, Sciences and Research Branch of Tehran, Iran. * Corresponding author's E-mail: Gholami.vahid@gmail.com

2 Dept. of Watershed Management, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.


Urbanization is a pervasive global trend. The development of residential areas and road network in Hajighoshan watershed (northern Iran) has been observed in the recent several decades. The objective of this study is the quantitative investigation of the effects of impervious surfaces development and urban development on runoff generation and flood hazard. The study of urban area development was carried out using aerial photos, topographic maps and satellite images. Also a rainfall-runoff model was presented using GIS (HEC-GeoHMS extension) and HEC-HMS model. Then, the model was optimized with initial loss and SCS-Lag parameters. The optimized model was evaluated using the other 4 events of flood .In the next stage, the development of impervious surfaces was included in the validated hydrologic model and their effects on intensifying runoff generation and flood hazard was investigated quantitatively during the recent forty years. The results showed that the runoff generation potential has increased in Hajighoshan watershed because of urban development during forty years ago.
 Anderson, G. (1970) Effects of urban development on floods in Northern Virginia. US Geological Survey Water Supply Paper (USGS), 2001-C, 22 p.
Booth, D.B. and Jackson, C.R. (1997) Urbanization of aquatics-degradation thresholds, stormwater detention and limits of mitigation. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. (JAWRA), 33: 1077-1090.
Booth, D.B. Hartley, D. And Jackson, R. (2002) Forest cover, impervious-surface area, and the mitigation of stormwater impacts. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. (JAWRA), 38: 835- 845.
Brilly, M. Rusjan, S. and Vidmar, A. (2006) Monitoring the impact of urbanisation on the Glinscica stream. J. Phys. Chem. 31: 1089-1096.
Brown, R.G. (1998) Effects of precipitation and land use on storm runoff, Water Resources Bulletin 24: 421-425.
Burns, D. Vitvarb, T. McDonnellc, J. Hassettb, J. Duncanb, J. and Kendalld, C.(2005) Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA. J. Hydr., 311: 266-281. Camorani, G. Castellarin, A. and Brath, A. (2005) Effects of land-use changes on the hydrologic response of reclamation systems. J. Phys. Chem., 3: 561-574.
Chin, A. and Gregory, K.J. (2001) Urbanization and adjustment of ephemeral stream channels. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 91. 595– 608.
Christopher, A. Johnson, A. and Yung, A.C. (1998) The Use of HEC-GeoHMS and HEC-HMS to Perform Grid-based Hydrologic Analysis of a Watershed.
Doyle, M. Harbor, J. Rich, C. and Spacie, A. (2000) Examining the effects of urbanization on streams using indicators of geomorphic stability. Phys. Geogr. 21: 155– 181.
E.A. (1991) Ground water contamination from two small septic systems on sand aquifers. Ground Water, 29: 82-92.
Foster, I., Gurnell, A. and Webb, B. (1995) Sediment and Water Quality in River Catchments. Wiley Chichester, 473 p.
Griffin, C.B. (1995) Uncertainty analysis of BMP effectiveness for controlling nitrogen from urban nonpoint sources. Water Res.Bull. 31. 1041–1050.
Hirsch, R.M. Walker, J.F. Day, J.C. and Kallio, R. (1990) The influence of man on hydrologic systems, In: Wolman, M.G., Riggs, H.C. (Eds.). Surface Water Hydrology. Vol. 1, Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, Colorado. USA, pp. 329-359.
Katz, B. And Bradley J. (1999) Divided we sprawl, Atlantic Monthly 284. 26–42.
Maksimovic, C. and Tucci, C. (2001) Urban drainage in speci.c climates, Urban drainage in humid tropics. Vol. 1, IHP-V, Technical Documents in Hydrology, UNESCO, Paris, 40, 227.
McCuen, R.H. (1998) Hydrologic Analysis and Design. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs. NJ, USA, 814 p.
Moldan, B. and Cerny, J. (1994) Biochemistry of small catchments, A tool for environmental research. Wiley, Chichester, 419 p.
Moscrip, A.L. and Montgomery, D.R. (1997) Urbanization flood, frequency and salmon abundance in Puget Lowlan Streams. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. (JAWRA), 33: 1289– 1297.
Nelson, E.J. and Booth, D.B. (2002) Sediment sources in an urbanizing, mixed landuse watershed. J. Hydrol., 264: 51–68.
Novotny, V. Clark, D. and Griffin, R.J. (2001) Booth D. Risk based urban watershed management under conflicting objectives. J. Water Science and Tech. 43: 69-78.
Pappas, E.A Smith, D.R. Huang, C. Shuster, W.C. and Bonta, J.V. (2007) Impervious surface impacts to runoff and sediment discharge under laboratory rainfall simulation. Journal of CATENA 012-12. 7.
Riley, A.L. (1998) Restoring Streams in Cities, A Guide for Planners. Policymakers and Citizens. Island Press. Washington D.C, p 445.
Robertson, W.D. Cherry, J.A. and Sudicky, Ros, S. and Peters, N. (2001) Effects of urbanization on streamflow in the Atlanta area Georgia, USA: a comparative hydrological approach. Hydrol. Proc. 15: 1441–1457.
Seaburn, G.E. (1969) Effects of urban development on direct runoff to East Meadow Brook, Nassau County. Long Island. New York. US Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper, 627-B, 14 p.
Schueler, T. (1995) Environmental land planning series: site planning for urban streams protection. Center for Watershed Protection Publication No. 95708.
Stone, B.S. (2001) Geospatial database and preliminary flood hydrology model For the lower Colorado basin, Dissertation, Presented in Texas Univeresity, 173 p.