Department of Environmental Science Vishveshwarya Institute of Engineering and Technology Dadri, Gautam Budh Nagar-203 207, Uttar Pradesh. India. * Corresponding author's E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar - 249 404, Uttarakhand. India.
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar - 249 404, Uttarakhand. India.
A trend of significant increase in municipal solid waste generation has been recorded worldwide. This has been found due to over population growth rate, industrialization, urbanization and economic growth. Consumerism speed has been found very high covering around more then 50% of total population since last decade due to higher economic growth, which has ultimately resulted in increased solid waste generation. Municipal solid waste generation showed different trend and a positive correlation with economic development in term of kg/capita/day solid waste generation at world scale. Municipal solid waste generation has been recorded much higher in western and some eastern developed countries. Solid waste generation kg/capita/day was found 2 kg in USA, 1.89 kg in Australia, 1.8 kg in Canada, 1.83 kg in Ireland, 1.1 kg in Belgium and Switzerland, 0.99 kg in Spain, 0.96 kg in Italy, 0.85 kg in Mexico and Greece during 1992 as per report and expected to be increased at least 25% by 2005 due to population and economic revolution. Similarly solid waste generation in several developing countries and cities has been found in South East Asia region. Some important data can be mentioned such as 1.2 kg in Changging (1997), 0.6 kg in Shanghai (1993), 0.88 kg in Beijing (1991), 1.17 kg in Hong Kong residential cities and 3.9 kg commercial (1994), 1.5 kg in Tokyo, 2.7 kg in Osaka, Japan (1993), 0.66 kg in Jakarta, Indonesia (1993), 1.29 kg in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (1989), 0.53 kg in Metro Manila Philippines (1995), 0.5 kg in Khulana, Dhaka, Chittagong, 0.4 kg Sylhat, Bangladesh (1991). Total Solid waste generated in Tons/day would be proportionate to the population of specific city in that specific/mentioned year. Population growth and solid waste generation in India has varying trend and correlation between population and solid waste generation of specificity is not necessary to be applicable. Population growth and solid waste generation in India has varying trend and correlation between population and solid waste generation of specific city is not necessary to be applicable. Population increased from 8.2 to 12.3 million in Mumbai during the period of Ten years (1981-97) at the rate of 49%. Similarly the population growth has been found to rise exponentially in other Indian cities; however, the growth rate may be varying. Trend of urbanization played significant role in enhancement of solid waste generation and in India it was 27.8% in 2001 and expected to reach 41% by 2021. In certain Indian cities, Solid waste generation has been found in 1995 was 0.64 kg in Kanpur, 0.52 kg in Lucknow, 0.4 kg in Varanasi, 0.59 kg in Ahemadabad and 0.44 kg in Mumbai. Currently total solid waste generated in India is around 42 million tons annually. Waste generation varies from 200-600 kg/capita/day and collection efficiency ranges from 50-90%.
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