Guilan province is located in north of Iran. It plays an important natural, economic and strategic role in Iranian history due to its geographical location between the Caspian Sea and the Alborz Mountain. This particular characteristic of Guilan has made it one of the most important political centers in its history and in the history of its struggles against the central government of Iran. Iran neighborhood with Russia and Caucasia during the Safavid Dynasty has added to Guilan economic significance. Guilan silk in the Safavid era made Iran well known as far as most of traders and tourists and orientalists who traveled to Iran have pointed to it in their writings. In this study, the importance of this strategic merchandise are investigated and discussed from the viewpoint of economics, income creation, commerce, tolls, customs as well as its export, taxes, products and the commercial routes.